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Milano, Italy

Lonati G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Crippa M.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Gianelle V.,ARPA Lombardia | Van Dingenen R.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Aerosol number concentration and size distributions in the 10-20,000nm size range were measured using a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC) at an urban background site. Daily patterns of the total particle (TP), ultrafine (UFP, Dp<100nm) and submicron (SMP, 100

Gilardoni S.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Vignati E.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Marmer E.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Cavalli F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.

In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (Dp < 2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 μm < Dp <10 μm) aerosol particles were sampled from February to June (wet season) and from August to September (dry season) 2008 in the central Amazon basin. The mass of fine particles averaged 2.4 μg m−3 during the wet season and 4.2 μg m−3 during the dry season. The average coarse aerosol mass concentration during wet and dry periods was 7.9 and 7.6 μg m−3, respectively. The overall chemical composition of fine and coarse mass did not show any seasonality with the largest fraction of fine and coarse aerosol mass explained by organic carbon (OC); the average OC to mass ratio was 0.4 and 0.6 in fine and coarse aerosol modes, respectively. The mass absorbing cross section of soot was determined by comparison of elemental carbon and light absorption coefficient measurements and it was equal to 4.7 m2 g−1 at 637 nm. Carbon aerosol sources were identified by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of thermograms: 44% of fine total carbon mass was assigned to biomass burning, 43% to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and 13% to volatile species that are difficult to apportion. In the coarse mode, primary biogenic aerosol particles (PBAP) dominated the carbonaceous aerosol mass. The results confirmed the importance of PBAP in forested areas.

The source apportionment results were employed to evaluate the ability of global chemistry transport models to simulate carbonaceous aerosol sources in a regional tropical background site. The comparison showed an overestimation of elemental carbon (EC) by the TM5 model during the dry season and OC both during the dry and wet periods. The overestimation was likely due to the overestimation of biomass burning emission inventories and SOA production over tropical areas. © 2011 Author(s).

Antognazza F.,ARPA Lombardia | Caserini S.,Polytechnic of Milan | Grosso M.,Polytechnic of Milan
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2011

A survey has been conducted across all MSW landfills with gas extraction system in the Lombardia Region (Italy) in order to collect data for an emission inventory assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the timeframe 1975-2008. The survey results identified a large number of landfills opened over the last 35 years and characterized by different kinds and amounts of waste disposed. Using the IPCC methodology, GHG emissions in the year 2008 were quantified to be 1.81 Mt CO 2-eq, which corresponds to 1.9% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardia. A dependency between collection efficiency and age of the collecting network has been established and used for the projection of GHG emission in the period 2009-2020, and for two scenarios: a business as usual (BAU) and an alternative one that implies policies to reduce biodegradable carbon content in the residual waste. The latter allows for a 45% reduction of the GHG emissions in 2020 compared to the year 2008, whereas in the BAU scenario the expected reduction is 32%. The sensitivity analysis shows that a variation of parameters that represent the carbon content of the waste category and degradation rate constant, within the range reported in the literature, could affect GHG emission level by about ±18%, whereas the uncertainty due to landfill gas (LFG) composition is less relevant. © 2011 The Author(s).

Fontana E.,University of Milan | Tartarotti P.,University of Milan | Panseri M.,University of Milan | Buscemi S.,ARPA Lombardia
Journal of Maps | Year: 2015

The Mount Avic massif consists of serpentinized peridotite exposed in the southern Aosta valley (Northwestern Alps), covering an area of ca. 180 km2. The 1:10,000 scale geological map is located in the southern portion of the massif, where serpentinite is in contact with ophiolitic rocks pertaining to the Piemonte Zone, which represents the fossil Mesozoic Tethyan ocean. Southwards, ophiolites are overthrusted by the continental-derived Austroalpine Mont Glacier unit. Serpentinite consists of antigorite, magnetite, and coarse grained Ti-clinohumite, olivine, and diopside, which are reminiscent of the original mantle texture. Rodingitic mafic dykes are intruded within serpentinite; other mafic rocks, consisting of (not rodingitized) metagabbro and metabasalt with relict eclogitic minerals, occur as tectonic slices associated with serpentinite, calcschist and sulphide-rich epidosite. The map gives detailed and updated information on the structure and lithostratigraphy of the Mount Avic ophiolites, providing an insight to the mantle-crust transition of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. © 2014, © 2014 Emanuele Fontana.

The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of twelve potentially hazardous elements in wood pellet ashes obtained by the combustion of 13 pellet brands for sale in Italy, the impact of adding the ashes to soils and health risk of operator due to dust exposure. Samples were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals in ashes from stoves ranged from 0.41 to 7.2 mg kg-1 for As, from 1.3 to 12 mg kg-1 for Sb, from 1.8 to 12 mg kg-1 for Zn, from 0.23 to 0.8 mg kg-1 for Pb, from 0.18 to 2.8 mg kg-1 for Ni, from 0.09 to 1.0 mg kg-1 for Cd, from 0.46 to 3.4 mg kg-1 for Cr, from 0.94 to 2.7 mg kg-1 for V, from 2.2 to 11 mg kg-1 for Cu, from 60 to 409 mg kg-1 for Mn, from 83 to 432 mg kg-1 for Fe and from 3484 to 15,484 mg kg-1 for Al. The total concentrations for the 12 investigated elements, expressed as the sum of the concentrations (∑me), ranged from 3703 mg kg-1 to 15,946 mg kg-1 of dry weight with a mean of 8455 mg kg-1. Considering all the metals, the results indicate that there are very low risks for operators regarding non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic elements contained in the wood pellet ashes produced during cleaning of pellet stoves in confined environments. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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