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Lonati G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Crippa M.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Gianelle V.,ARPA Lombardia | Van Dingenen R.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Aerosol number concentration and size distributions in the 10-20,000nm size range were measured using a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC) at an urban background site. Daily patterns of the total particle (TP), ultrafine (UFP, Dp<100nm) and submicron (SMP, 100

Gilardoni S.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Vignati E.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Marmer E.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Cavalli F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.

In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (Dp < 2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 μm < Dp <10 μm) aerosol particles were sampled from February to June (wet season) and from August to September (dry season) 2008 in the central Amazon basin. The mass of fine particles averaged 2.4 μg m−3 during the wet season and 4.2 μg m−3 during the dry season. The average coarse aerosol mass concentration during wet and dry periods was 7.9 and 7.6 μg m−3, respectively. The overall chemical composition of fine and coarse mass did not show any seasonality with the largest fraction of fine and coarse aerosol mass explained by organic carbon (OC); the average OC to mass ratio was 0.4 and 0.6 in fine and coarse aerosol modes, respectively. The mass absorbing cross section of soot was determined by comparison of elemental carbon and light absorption coefficient measurements and it was equal to 4.7 m2 g−1 at 637 nm. Carbon aerosol sources were identified by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of thermograms: 44% of fine total carbon mass was assigned to biomass burning, 43% to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and 13% to volatile species that are difficult to apportion. In the coarse mode, primary biogenic aerosol particles (PBAP) dominated the carbonaceous aerosol mass. The results confirmed the importance of PBAP in forested areas.

The source apportionment results were employed to evaluate the ability of global chemistry transport models to simulate carbonaceous aerosol sources in a regional tropical background site. The comparison showed an overestimation of elemental carbon (EC) by the TM5 model during the dry season and OC both during the dry and wet periods. The overestimation was likely due to the overestimation of biomass burning emission inventories and SOA production over tropical areas. © 2011 Author(s).

Antognazza F.,ARPA Lombardia | Caserini S.,Polytechnic of Milan | Grosso M.,Polytechnic of Milan
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2011

A survey has been conducted across all MSW landfills with gas extraction system in the Lombardia Region (Italy) in order to collect data for an emission inventory assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the timeframe 1975-2008. The survey results identified a large number of landfills opened over the last 35 years and characterized by different kinds and amounts of waste disposed. Using the IPCC methodology, GHG emissions in the year 2008 were quantified to be 1.81 Mt CO 2-eq, which corresponds to 1.9% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardia. A dependency between collection efficiency and age of the collecting network has been established and used for the projection of GHG emission in the period 2009-2020, and for two scenarios: a business as usual (BAU) and an alternative one that implies policies to reduce biodegradable carbon content in the residual waste. The latter allows for a 45% reduction of the GHG emissions in 2020 compared to the year 2008, whereas in the BAU scenario the expected reduction is 32%. The sensitivity analysis shows that a variation of parameters that represent the carbon content of the waste category and degradation rate constant, within the range reported in the literature, could affect GHG emission level by about ±18%, whereas the uncertainty due to landfill gas (LFG) composition is less relevant. © 2011 The Author(s).

Isotta F.A.,Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss | Frei C.,Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss | Weilguni V.,Bundesministerium fur Land und Forstwirtschaft | Percec Tadic M.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2014

In the region of the European Alps, national and regional meteorological services operate rain-gauge networks, which together, constitute one of the densest in situ observation systems in a large-scale high-mountain region. Data from these networks are consistently analyzed, in this study, to develop a pan-Alpine grid dataset and to describe the region's mesoscale precipitation climate, including the occurrence of heavy precipitation and long dry periods. The analyses are based on a collation of high-resolution rain-gauge data from seven Alpine countries, with 5500 measurements per day on average, spanning the period 1971-2008. The dataset is an update of an earlier version with improved data density and more thorough quality control. The grid dataset has a grid spacing of 5 km, daily time resolution, and was constructed with a distance-angular weighting scheme that integrates climatological precipitation-topography relationships. Scales effectively resolved in the dataset are coarser than the grid spacing and vary in time and space, depending on station density. We quantify the uncertainty of the dataset by cross-validation and in relation to topographic complexity, data density and season. Results indicate that grid point estimates are systematically underestimated (overestimated) at large (small) precipitation intensities, when they are interpreted as point estimates. Our climatological analyses highlight interesting variations in indicators of daily precipitation that deviate from the pattern and course of mean precipitation and illustrate the complex role of topography. The daily Alpine precipitation grid dataset was developed as part of the EU funded EURO4M project and is freely available for scientific use. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

PubMed | CNR Institute of Neuroscience, University of Perugia, Research and Innovation Center, University of Milan Bicocca and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

The availability of more than thirty years of historical satellite data is a valuable source which could be used as an alternative to the sparse in-situ data. We developed a new homogenised time series of daily day time Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) over the last thirty years (1986-2015) at a spatial resolution of 1km from thirteen polar orbiting satellites. The new homogenisation procedure implemented in this study corrects for the different acquisition times of the satellites standardizing the derived LSWT to 12:00 UTC. In this study, we developed new time series of LSWT for five large lakes in Italy and evaluated the product with in-situ data from the respective lakes. Furthermore, we estimated the long-term annual and summer trends, the temporal coherence of mean LSWT between the lakes, and studied the intra-annual variations and long-term trends from the newly developed LSWT time series. We found a regional warming trend at a rate of 0.017Cyr

Fontana E.,University of Milan | Tartarotti P.,University of Milan | Panseri M.,University of Milan | Buscemi S.,ARPA Lombardia
Journal of Maps | Year: 2015

The Mount Avic massif consists of serpentinized peridotite exposed in the southern Aosta valley (Northwestern Alps), covering an area of ca. 180 km2. The 1:10,000 scale geological map is located in the southern portion of the massif, where serpentinite is in contact with ophiolitic rocks pertaining to the Piemonte Zone, which represents the fossil Mesozoic Tethyan ocean. Southwards, ophiolites are overthrusted by the continental-derived Austroalpine Mont Glacier unit. Serpentinite consists of antigorite, magnetite, and coarse grained Ti-clinohumite, olivine, and diopside, which are reminiscent of the original mantle texture. Rodingitic mafic dykes are intruded within serpentinite; other mafic rocks, consisting of (not rodingitized) metagabbro and metabasalt with relict eclogitic minerals, occur as tectonic slices associated with serpentinite, calcschist and sulphide-rich epidosite. The map gives detailed and updated information on the structure and lithostratigraphy of the Mount Avic ophiolites, providing an insight to the mantle-crust transition of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. © 2014, © 2014 Emanuele Fontana.

Caroli S.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Forte M.,ARPA Lombardia | Nuccetelli C.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Rusconi R.,ARPA Lombardia | Risica S.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2013

A short review on the performance of radiometric techniques in measuring radionuclides in drinking water as compared to that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is presented. Desirable Limits of Detection (LoDs) for main radionuclides, as dictated by their radiotoxicity and current regulations, are discussed. As regards radiation measurements, both traditional techniques, such as γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry coupled to radiochemical treatment, and relatively novel procedures, like ultra-low level Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC), are taken into account. The major merits and drawbacks brought about by ICP-MS in the quantification of radionuclides are also illustrated. The review is based on both experimental results from the authors' laboratories as well as on literature data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sulis A.N.,ARPA Lombardia | Lussana C.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Cislaghi M.,ARPA Lombardia | Russo M.,ARPA Lombardia
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

Estimation of extreme event distributions and depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves is achieved at any target site by repeated sampling among all available raingauge data in the surrounding area. The estimate is computed over a gridded domain in Northern Italy, using precipitation time series from 1929 to 2011, including data from historical analog stations and from the present-day automatic observational network. The presented local regionalisation naturally overcomes traditional station-point methods, with their demand of long historical series and their sensitivity to very rare events occurring at very few stations, possibly causing unrealistic spatial gradients in DDF relations. At the same time, the presented approach allows for spatial dependence, necessary in a geographical domain such as Lombardy, complex for both its topography and its climatology. The bootstrap technique enables evaluating uncertainty maps for all estimated parameters and for rainfall depths at assigned return periods. © Author(s) 2014.

Colombi C.,ARPA Lombardia | Angius S.,ARPA Lombardia | Gianelle V.,ARPA Lombardia | Lazzarini M.,ARPA Lombardia
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

An extensive measurement campaign was conducted in the Milan subway system in order to investigate PM10 concentrations, to determine its physical and elemental composition, its origins, and to attempt to quantify source contributions. The Milan subway system includes three lines and stations typically consist of two underground levels: an intermediate floor (mezzanine) where the turnstiles for accessing the platform are located, and a platform level, one floor down. Measurements were performed in two stations for each line, and both microenvironments (platform and mezzanine) were investigated in all cases. PM10 samples were collected at all twelve sites over three daily periods for nine consecutive days at each site. Particle number concentrations were also measured with Optical Particle Counters (OPC) and size-number distributions were determined. X-ray fluorescence analysis was also performed on the samples to determine element concentrations. The results indicate PM sources related with train operations as the dominant impact on particulate concentrations. Average weekday PM10 concentrations between 105 and 283 μg m-3 were observed at the platform level, while average ambient concentrations of 36 μg m-3 were observed. Fe, Ba, Sb, Mn and Cu were found to be significantly enriched. Metal particles, occurring mostly in the range of diameters between 1 and 5 μm, and therefore likely originating from mechanical processes, account for most of the PM10 mass at the platform level. Wheel, brake and track wear are found to contribute 40-73% of total PM10 mass and electric cable wear (Cu and Zn oxides) 2%-3%. Concentrations measured on the mezzanine levels are intermediate between those found in ambient air and on the platform level, with average daytime PM10 values ranging from 50 to 80 μg m-3. The situation observed on the mezzanine can well be described through an appropriate mixing of ambient and platform level air. A decreasing, albeit still significant, impact from internal sources is observed, with particulate from wheel, brake and track wear contributing an average of 2-25%, and electric cable wear 0.5-1.2%, to total PM10 mass. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lussana C.,ARPA Lombardia | Salvati M.R.,ARPA Lombardia
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

A spatial consistency test (SCT) is applied to temperature observations of a high-resolution meteorological network composed of automatic surface weather stations. The SCT's purpose is twofold: preventing gross errors (GEs) from entering automatic numerical elaborations and returning a spatial consistency flag to an external quality-control system. The algorithm is based on Bayesian concepts and exploits the existing objective analysis scheme by comparing each observed value with the corresponding cross-validation (CV) analysis value. Local data density is automatically taken into account to allow a less restrictive test for isolated stations that provide precious information on poorly observed areas. Thresholds and parameters are estimated statistically for large datasets, thus eliminating any subjective and ad hoc tuning. Misjudgment rates are estimated for both missed and false rejections. Special attention is devoted to the problem of large representativity errors which, being dependent on a prescribed scale, do require multiple cross-checks to avoid confusion with proper GEs. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

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