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Rome, Italy

Gariazzo C.,DIPIA Inc | Hanninen O.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Amicarelli A.,DIPIA Inc | Pelliccioni A.,DIPIA Inc | And 3 more authors.
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2011

Population exposure assessment plays a central role in developing efficient policies to control the significant health impacts caused by ambient pollution. Policy development requires comparison of alternative control options, which by definition can only be conducted using models. The current work presents results from an integrated model developed for Rome, Italy, to estimate the exposure distributions of children. Spatial distribution of the hourly PM10 levels in 2005 was modeled by a chemical transport model and the modeled concentrations were adjusted using a procedure based on the observed PM10 concentrations at urban stations. The PM10 exposures of children were then estimated accounting for: the time-activity patterns in indoors, outdoors, and in traffic; adjusted ambient levels; and outdoor to indoor infiltration factors. The mean annual exposure level was 22 μg/m3, compared to the mean observed ambient concentration at a central station of 48 μg/m3, with higher seasonal levels estimated for spring and summer than for autumn and winter. The differences are caused by the longer time spent outdoors and higher residential ventilation rates during spring and summer. The highest integrated exposures took place in the northeasterly districts. Average exposure levels in almost the whole city exceeded 20 μg/m3. Short-term exposures were also investigated during a winter PM10 episode for which exposure levels in excess of 30 μg/m3 were calculated. Cumulative distribution results for the children indicate that the 24-h limit of 50 μg/m3 set for the protection of human health is not exceeded by the exposures of children during the episode. The results of this study are important for a correct interpretation of the epidemiological studies taking into account the relationship of exposures and ambient air quality and for the development of alternative policy options to reduce children's exposures by lifestyle modification and interventions focused on the reduction of the infiltration of PM10 into indoor environments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Trevisi R.,Research Sector | Cardellini F.,ENEA | Leonardi F.,Research Sector | Vargas Trassierra C.,University of Cassino and Southern Lazio | Franci D.,ARPA Lazio
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2014

The inhalation of short-lived radon decay products (RDP) yields the greatest contribution to the natural radiation exposure. This paper deals with a study carried out to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of RDPs, their interaction with particulates and the plateout during the time. The tests confirmed that a high aerosol particle concentration increases the probability that an ion sticks to aerosol and remains long in the air, leading to both an increase of F and a decrease of fp, as reported in the literature. The same experimental protocol applied in a small radon chamber showed a strong reduction of the equilibrium factor (an average of -10 %), because in a small environment the plateout phenomenon prevails on the attachment to particulate. © The Author 2014. Source


Armiento G.,ENEA | Tagliani S.M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Montereali M.R.,ENEA | Nardi E.,ENEA | And 4 more authors.
Periodico di Mineralogia | Year: 2013

Understanding the health effects induced in humans by the inhalation of air particulate matter requires first that airborne particles be characterized in detail. Aiming at elucidating some prominent mechanisms and processes involved in the atmospheric environment - human organism interaction, a comprehensive approach was adopted to thoroughly investigate PM2.5 from a mineralogical, chemical and chemical-physical point of view. In the present study, two summer and winter samplings collected from the Rome urban area were investigated by different techniques (SEM-EDS, XRD, ICP-MS, ICP-OES, TGA-DTA). Mineralogical and physical characterization gave important information on the prevalent phases (oxides, sulphates, silicates, carbonates, and abundant carbonaceous particles hosting metals) contained into the material under study. The bulk chemical composition evidenced the presence of heavy metals, in particular As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Consequently, in order to verify the potential mobility of such heavy metals, batch kinetic leaching tests were carried out by using a physiological solution mimicking the lung environment and samples were collected from the solution at different times of treatment. Among the metals contained into the particulate, a leaching trend was observed mainly for Pb, Cd and Cu, with Cd resulting the most mobile metal, whereas no Fe release was observed. The leaching solution mimicking the human intrapulmonary fluid will be exploited for future toxicological tests in cellular models, in order to assess the potentially harmful role of the above metals in biological systems. Source


Gariazzo C.,Research Center | Pelliccioni A.,Research Center | Bolignano A.,ARPA Lazio
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Franci D.,ARPA Lazio | Aureli T.,ARPA Lazio | Cardellini F.,ENEA
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ageing and fading on PADC detector response, as a function of the storage time and temperature. Several groups of CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys, Ltd. were exposed at the reference radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, at the ENEA centre in Casaccia. The results indicate that low-temperature storage inhibits the effect of both ageing and fading. Finally, the overall reduction in CR-39 sensitivity due to the combined ageing/fading effect was estimated. In particular, the sensitivity of the detectors continuously exposed in air at room temperature over 6 and 3 months was reduced, respectively, by 7.5 and 4 %. © The Author 2014. Source

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