Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

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Yang J.-B.,University of Manchester | Wang Y.-M.,Fuzhou University | Xu D.-L.,University of Manchester | Chin K.-S.,City University of Hong Kong | Chatton L.,Aromco Ltd.
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

Rapid and accurate identification of consumer demands and systematic assessment of product quality are essential to success for new product development, in particular for fast moving consumer goods such as food and drink products. This paper reports an investigation into a belief rule-based (BRB) methodology for quality assessment, target setting and consumer preference prediction in retro-fit design of food and drink products. The BRB methodology can be used to represent the relationships between consumer preferences and product attributes, which are complicated and nonlinear. A BRB system can initially be established using expert knowledge and then optimally trained and validated using data generated from consumer or expert panel assessments or from tests and experiments. The established BRBs can then be used to predict the consumer acceptance of new products or set product target values in retro-fit design. The proposed BRB methodology is applied to the design of a lemonade drink product using real data provided by a sensory product manufacturer in the UK. The results show that the BRB methodology can be used to predict consumer preferences with high accuracy and to set optimal target values for product quality improvement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yang N.,University of Nottingham | Hort J.,University of Nottingham | Linforth R.,University of Nottingham | Brown K.,Aromco Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The influence of choice of flavour solvent, propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA), was investigated during accelerated shelf life (ASL) testing of shortcake biscuits. Specifically, the differential effect on the stability of added vanillin, the natural baked marker compound 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), specific markers of oxidative rancidity (2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal), and the structural parameters of hardness and fracturability. Significantly more HMF was formed during baking of biscuits prepared with TA; these biscuits were also more stable to oxidative degradation and loss of vanillin during ageing than biscuits prepared with PG. Fresh TA biscuits were significantly more brittle than fresh PG biscuits. There was no impact of solvent choice on hardness. Sensory evaluation of hardness, vanilla flavour and oily off-note was tested during ASL testing. There was no significant impact of storage on sensory ratings for either the PG or TA biscuits. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang N.,University of Nottingham | Fisk I.D.,University of Nottingham | Linforth R.,University of Nottingham | Brown K.,Aromco Ltd | And 4 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

The influence of flavour solvent, propylene glycol (PG) and triacetin (TA), was investigated on the micro-structure (as measured by X-ray micro-Computed Tomography, X-ray μCT) and aroma compound distribution (as measured by HPLC) within shortcake biscuits. X-ray μCT scanning showed biscuits made with PG had smaller pores and higher porosity than biscuits made with TA. Vanillin distribution across the biscuits was not homogeneous and was found at higher concentrations in the centre of the biscuits than the edge or bottom. The baked aroma compound 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) was present at higher concentrations at the surface of the biscuits where Maillard chemistry is presumed to occur at its highest rate. The type of solvent had a significant effect on the total concentration and distribution of aroma compounds (p < 0. 05). TA biscuits retained greater vanillin and more HMF was formed during baking when compared to PG biscuits. The core of TA biscuits had (on a relative scale) a much greater vanillin and lower HMF concentration than PG biscuits when compared to their periphery. Although this may be due to different physicochemical properties of the two solvents and varying levels of interactions with other ingredients, the micro-structure differences indicated by X-ray μCT image analysis illustrate one potential route by which the flavour solvent may be influencing the generation and stability of biscuit aroma compounds. © 2012 The Author(s).


Blee N.,University of Nottingham | Linforth R.,University of Nottingham | Yang N.,University of Nottingham | Brown K.,Aromco Ltd | Taylor A.,University of Nottingham
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2011

Variation in in vivo volatile release was studied using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. The extent of variation in in vivo flavour release was related to the partitioning behaviour of the compound. Compounds with highest air/water partition coefficients (Kaw) showed more variation in release than those with low Kaw values. Sample matrix components (such as lipid) have the potential to influence the air/product partition coefficient. If they reduce the partition coefficient they can reduce the variation in volatile release. Variation in release was assessed for menthone from a series of five different sample types. Chewing gum gave the most consistent release, which was attributed to the consistency of chewing in oral processing and volatile delivery. The least consistent release intensity was associated with the boiled sweet, which may have resulted in substantial variation in oral processing and hence volatile delivery. A study of a panel of 50 people showed that there were strong correlations in the intensity of volatile release across sample types. Panellists who released high concentrations of volatiles into their breath from one sample type would typically do so for another. Equally, panellists who released lower amounts from one sample type would also release less from others. Some differences in the intensity of aroma release were observed between sample types. These appear to be related to textural differences between samples, which would affect oral processing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Yang N.,University of Nottingham | Linforth R.S.T.,University of Nottingham | Walsh S.,Aromco Ltd. | Brown K.,Aromco Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2011

The feasibility of reformulating a commercial flavouring using a simple predictive model was studied in two confectionery (candy) systems. Initially, the variation in the different stages of the reformulation process was quantified using a model flavour. MS-Nose analysis showed variation between 1% and 3% for static headspace analyses (ethyl nonanoate showed 9% variation). Flavour content in the finished candies varied from 4% to 22%. Despite variation between panellists' aroma release (3-60%), data analysis indicated that representative aroma release could be obtained using five panellists consuming three replicates. For reformulation studies, a simple commercial strawberry flavouring was chosen that delivered a highly acceptable flavour in a pectin-sucrose gel, but did not perform so well in a chewy candy containing sugar, protein and fat. By measuring in vivo aroma profiles in people eating the gel and the chewy candy, the relative change in aroma release could be determined and used to reformulate the strawberry flavouring so its release in both candies was similar. The sensory performance of candies with the original and reformulated flavourings was measured using difference testing (n = 100) and descriptive analysis (n = 5). Both analyses indicated that the reformulated flavour performed significantly better than the original flavour. The work shows the translation of a laboratory-based concept into the commercial world and provides another tool to assist flavourists in reformulating flavourings to deliver food products with the desired sensory properties. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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