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Laribi B.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia | Kouki K.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia | Mougou A.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

BACKGROUND: The essential oil and fatty acid composition of Tunisian annual caraway (Carum carvi L.) seeds from three ecotypes was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: Total fatty acid (TFA) proportion of caraway seeds varied from 2.95% to 5.68% (w/w). The fatty acid composition revealed that Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid-petroselinic acid-the proportion of which varied from 31.53% and 38.36% of TFA. Essential oil yields were relatively low and ranged from 0.86% to 1.20% (w/w). Forty-one volatile compounds were identified, the main ones being carvone (76.78-80.53%) and limonene (13.05-20.29%). CONCLUSION: Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid-petroselinic acid-which is of potential industrial significance. In addition, Tunisian caraway essential oil is carvone chemotype. This fact is of great economic interest due to the several applications of carvone in the alimentary and medicinal industries. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Neffati M.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of Essential Oil Research

The influence of salt stress on vegetative growth, essential oil content, and composition of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) grown in hydroponie culture was investigated. The volatile constituents of stems and leaves were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Seedlings were treated with different levels of salt stress (25 mM, 50 mM and 75 mM NaCl Results showed that the stem and leaf biomasses were not affected under 25 mM NaCl, compared to the control, although it decreased significantly at 50 mM and 75 mM. Essential oil content was 1762.64 μg/g DW (0.18%) and 1255.77 ug/g DW (0.12%) in stems and leaves, respectively. At low and moderate stress, a significant difference in the essential oil content was developed between stems, with a significant decrease, and leaves, with an increase up to 43%. Under high salinity, the oil content of both organs decreased significantly. The major volatile compound of stems and leaves was (E)-2decenal with 24% and 52%, respectively. Other important components were decanal, (E)-2-dodecenaI, dodecanal, (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-tridecenal and (E)-2-undecanal. Further, the content of these compounds were affected differently by the treatment level and by the organ type. © 2010 Allured Business Media. Source

Aidi Wannes W.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of Food Biochemistry

The present work aimed to study the phenolics and antioxidant activity of the methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica whole fruit, seed and pericarp. The total phenol contents varied between different fruit parts; seed extract had higher total phenol content (23.87mg GAE/g DW) than whole fruit (13.73mg GAE/g DW) and pericarp (2.76mg GAE/g DW) extracts. Significant differences were also found in total tannin contents among different myrtle parts, representing 18.01mg GAE/g DW in seed, 9.11mg GAE/g DW in whole fruit and 0.79mg GAE/g DW in pericarp. Concerning total flavonoid contents, the highest values were observed in pericarp (1.33mg GAE/g DW) and whole fruit (1.21mg CE/g DW) extracts. The condensed tannin content was relatively low in all samples tested, the highest value being found in whole fruit extract (0.96mg CE/g DW). The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the main phenolic class was hydrolysable tannins (gallotannins) in seed (80.20%, 8.99mg/g MS) while the pericarp was characterized by a predominance of anthocyanins (75.40%, 3.74mg/g DW). The whole fruit contained both hydrolysable tannins 40 (10.31%, 0.69mg/g DW) originated from seed and anthocyanins (69.36%, 4.64mg/g DW) originated from pericarp. Antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract from different fruit parts were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and reducing power assays. In all tests, the seed was the part with highest antioxidant potential. Practical Applications: Nowadays, the interest in naturally occurring antioxidants has considerably increased for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to replace synthetic antioxidants, which are being restricted because of their carcinogenicity. In this study, total phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of myrtle fruit parts (Myrtus communis var. italica) were researched. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Karoui I.J.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Wannes W.A.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Industrial Crops and Products

Corn oil was submitted to dynamic headspace to eliminate volatile compounds remained after refining process. The optimization of extraction parameters leads to an important deodorization after 4. h of extraction with residual aroma content of about 0.901μg/ml of deodorized corn oil. Different peel quantities and different incubation times were used during this experiment while oil volume, incubator temperature and shaking speed were hold constant. Essential oil components retained in corn oil were mainly represented by monoterpene hydrocarbons and limonene was the major one (ranging from 92.57% to 96.11%). Samples containing 15. g of Citrus peel and incubated for 1. h, showed the highest total volatiles with 2.4. mg/ml and limonene represented 2.3. mg/ml. Fatty acid analysis showed that aromatization did not affect fatty acid composition. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Taarit M.B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Msaada K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Hosni K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

Background: Hydroponic culture was used to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of S. officinalis was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay. Physiological and biochemical parameters of S. officinalis were assessed after 4 weeks of salt treatment with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L -1 NaCl. Results: Plant growth exhibited a reduction of 61% at 100 mmol L -1 NaCl. Assessment of Na +, K + and Ca 2+ and water contents of shoots and roots showed that S. officinalis is able to regulate Na + concentration by active compartmentation in vacuoles. Salvia officinalis phenolics were increased in response to salinity at the threshold of 75 mmol L -1 NaCl. This herb was also found to be able to achieve important DPPH • quenching activity and to inhibit the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching notably enhanced by salt treatment. It is interesting to highlight the correlation between the phenolic and antioxidant activity, suggesting the involvement of these compounds in this activity. Conclusion: Salvia officinalis treated with 75 mmol L -1 NaCl constitutes a potential source for production of secondary metabolites useful in several applications. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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