Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit

Hammam-Lif, Tunisia

Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit

Hammam-Lif, Tunisia

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Laribi B.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia | Kouki K.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia | Mougou A.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The essential oil and fatty acid composition of Tunisian annual caraway (Carum carvi L.) seeds from three ecotypes was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: Total fatty acid (TFA) proportion of caraway seeds varied from 2.95% to 5.68% (w/w). The fatty acid composition revealed that Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid-petroselinic acid-the proportion of which varied from 31.53% and 38.36% of TFA. Essential oil yields were relatively low and ranged from 0.86% to 1.20% (w/w). Forty-one volatile compounds were identified, the main ones being carvone (76.78-80.53%) and limonene (13.05-20.29%). CONCLUSION: Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid-petroselinic acid-which is of potential industrial significance. In addition, Tunisian caraway essential oil is carvone chemotype. This fact is of great economic interest due to the several applications of carvone in the alimentary and medicinal industries. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.


Taarit M.B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Msaada K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Hosni K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: Hydroponic culture was used to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of S. officinalis was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay. Physiological and biochemical parameters of S. officinalis were assessed after 4 weeks of salt treatment with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L -1 NaCl. Results: Plant growth exhibited a reduction of 61% at 100 mmol L -1 NaCl. Assessment of Na +, K + and Ca 2+ and water contents of shoots and roots showed that S. officinalis is able to regulate Na + concentration by active compartmentation in vacuoles. Salvia officinalis phenolics were increased in response to salinity at the threshold of 75 mmol L -1 NaCl. This herb was also found to be able to achieve important DPPH • quenching activity and to inhibit the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching notably enhanced by salt treatment. It is interesting to highlight the correlation between the phenolic and antioxidant activity, suggesting the involvement of these compounds in this activity. Conclusion: Salvia officinalis treated with 75 mmol L -1 NaCl constitutes a potential source for production of secondary metabolites useful in several applications. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Neffati M.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2010

The influence of salt stress on vegetative growth, essential oil content, and composition of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) grown in hydroponie culture was investigated. The volatile constituents of stems and leaves were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Seedlings were treated with different levels of salt stress (25 mM, 50 mM and 75 mM NaCl Results showed that the stem and leaf biomasses were not affected under 25 mM NaCl, compared to the control, although it decreased significantly at 50 mM and 75 mM. Essential oil content was 1762.64 μg/g DW (0.18%) and 1255.77 ug/g DW (0.12%) in stems and leaves, respectively. At low and moderate stress, a significant difference in the essential oil content was developed between stems, with a significant decrease, and leaves, with an increase up to 43%. Under high salinity, the oil content of both organs decreased significantly. The major volatile compound of stems and leaves was (E)-2decenal with 24% and 52%, respectively. Other important components were decanal, (E)-2-dodecenaI, dodecanal, (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-tridecenal and (E)-2-undecanal. Further, the content of these compounds were affected differently by the treatment level and by the organ type. © 2010 Allured Business Media.


Karoui I.J.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Wannes W.A.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

Corn oil was submitted to dynamic headspace to eliminate volatile compounds remained after refining process. The optimization of extraction parameters leads to an important deodorization after 4. h of extraction with residual aroma content of about 0.901μg/ml of deodorized corn oil. Different peel quantities and different incubation times were used during this experiment while oil volume, incubator temperature and shaking speed were hold constant. Essential oil components retained in corn oil were mainly represented by monoterpene hydrocarbons and limonene was the major one (ranging from 92.57% to 96.11%). Samples containing 15. g of Citrus peel and incubated for 1. h, showed the highest total volatiles with 2.4. mg/ml and limonene represented 2.3. mg/ml. Fatty acid analysis showed that aromatization did not affect fatty acid composition. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Aidi Wannes W.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The present work aimed to study the phenolics and antioxidant activity of the methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica whole fruit, seed and pericarp. The total phenol contents varied between different fruit parts; seed extract had higher total phenol content (23.87mg GAE/g DW) than whole fruit (13.73mg GAE/g DW) and pericarp (2.76mg GAE/g DW) extracts. Significant differences were also found in total tannin contents among different myrtle parts, representing 18.01mg GAE/g DW in seed, 9.11mg GAE/g DW in whole fruit and 0.79mg GAE/g DW in pericarp. Concerning total flavonoid contents, the highest values were observed in pericarp (1.33mg GAE/g DW) and whole fruit (1.21mg CE/g DW) extracts. The condensed tannin content was relatively low in all samples tested, the highest value being found in whole fruit extract (0.96mg CE/g DW). The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the main phenolic class was hydrolysable tannins (gallotannins) in seed (80.20%, 8.99mg/g MS) while the pericarp was characterized by a predominance of anthocyanins (75.40%, 3.74mg/g DW). The whole fruit contained both hydrolysable tannins 40 (10.31%, 0.69mg/g DW) originated from seed and anthocyanins (69.36%, 4.64mg/g DW) originated from pericarp. Antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract from different fruit parts were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and reducing power assays. In all tests, the seed was the part with highest antioxidant potential. Practical Applications: Nowadays, the interest in naturally occurring antioxidants has considerably increased for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to replace synthetic antioxidants, which are being restricted because of their carcinogenicity. In this study, total phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of myrtle fruit parts (Myrtus communis var. italica) were researched. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Karoui I.J.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Dhifi W.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Ben Jemia M.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2011

Background: The thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with thyme flowers was determined and compared with that of the original refined corn oil (control). The oxidative stability index (OSI) was measured and samples were exposed to heating (30 min at 150, 180 and 200 °C) and deep-frying (180 °C). Changes in peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) content, specific absorptivity values (K232 and K270), colour and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents were monitored. Results: The OSI and heating results showed that thyme incorporation was effective against thermal oxidation based on the increased induction time observed for the flavoured oil (6.48 vs 4.36 h), which was characterised by lower PV, FFA content, K232 and K270 than the control oil after heating from 25 to 200 °C, with higher red and yellow colour intensities and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents. The deep-frying test showed the accelerated deterioration of both oils in the presence of French fries. Conclusion: Compared with the control oil, the thyme-flavoured oil showed improved thermal stability after heating. This could be attributed to the presence of thyme pigments and antioxidant compounds allowing extended oil thermal resistance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Taarit M.B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Msaada K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Hosni K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

Since soil salinity is a widespread problem, we proposed to focus on its effect on seedling growth, mineral composition and particularly on essential oil composition known to be reliable to abiotic conditions. Clary sage seedlings were hydroponically cultivated under different salt concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl). The dry biomass and the mineral element contents were determined. The essential oils were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Results showed that growth was reduced by 42% at 75 mM. This growth decrease was accompanied by a decrease in tissue hydration and a slight restriction in K+ uptake, as well as an increase in Na+ levels. Concerning essential oil yields, the application of 25 mM NaCl increased significantly the oil yield which decreased with increasing salt concentration. Besides, the chemical composition of clary sage was found to be also strongly affected by salt treatment since each salt concentration appeared to induce a different new chemotype in clary sage essential oil. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Neffati M.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Sriti J.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Hamdaoui G.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Kchouk M.E.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This study is designed to examine the fruit essential oil composition, the total phenolic amounts and the antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts of Coriandrum sativum under saline conditions. Increasing NaCl levels to 75. mM reduced significantly the fruit yield by 36%. The essential oil yield was 0.30%, based on the dry weight; it increased by 77% and 84% at 50 and 75. mM NaCl, respectively, in comparison to the control. The major constituents were linalool and camphor, whose amounts increased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts were determined by three different test systems, namely DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power assays. In these three test systems, the highest activity was exhibited in control plants and was reduced significantly with increasing NaCl levels. In control plants, the total phenolic amount was 1.04. mg GAE/g DW which decreased by 43% and 66% at 50 and 75. mM NaCl, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Wannes W.A.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Mhamdi B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Sriti J.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

Seed, pericarp and whole berry of Myrtus communis var. italica were compared in terms of oils, glycerolipid classes and fatty acids. The fruit is composed of pericarp and approximately 9 seeds which constituted 63.5 and 36.5% of the whole ripe fruit, respectively. The latter presented a weight of 8.8 g% fruits while seed had only 0.5 g% seeds. The moisture contents were 80.1% in pericarp, 72% in whole fruit and 39.7% in seed. The oil yield of seed (11.7%) was significantly higher than that of whole fruit (5.9%) and pericarp (2.1%). Total lipid amounts were 61.26 mg/g in seed, 28.97 mg/g in whole fruit and 4.14 mg/g in pericarp. The amounts of polar glycerolipids were lower than those of neutral glycerolipids in all samples. Triacylglycerol constituted the main neutral glycerolipid with 57.47 mg/g in seed, 25.68 mg/g in whole fruit and 1.67 mg/g in pericarp. The predominant fatty acids of total lipids and different glycerolipid classes were linoleic, palmitic, oleic and α-linolenic acids in all samples but with different proportions. Whole fruit, seed and pericarp provided low yields of oil but they were a rich source of essential fatty acids which will be important as an indication of the potentially nutraceutical and industrial utility of myrtle fruit. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Taarit M.B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Msaada K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Hosni K.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit | Marzouk B.,Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Unit
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Fatty acids and essential oils from hydroponically cultivated Salvia officinalis leaves were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Four different levels of NaCl (25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) were applied. The first results showed that salt treatment reduced significantly the plant growth by 61% and the total fatty acids (TFA) content by 32% at 100 mM NaCl. Alpha-linolenic, gadoleic, palmitic and oleic acids were the major fatty acids. Moreover, the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while the monounsaturated ones increased with respect to increasing salinity. Regarding the essential oil composition, the main compounds were α-and β-thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphor, α-humulene, viridiflorol and manool at all salt treatments. The yield had a maximum increase at 75 mM NaCl. Hence, sage can be considered as moderately salt sensitive. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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