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Abou-Ouf H.,University of Calgary | Abou-Ouf H.,Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Institute and Tom Baker Cancer Center | Zhao L.,University of Calgary | Bismar T.A.,University of Calgary | Bismar T.A.,Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Institute and Tom Baker Cancer Center
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

Introduction: Screening for increased levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has allowed early detection of a large majority of prostate cancer (PCa) cases. However, the relative lack of specificity of PSA has resulted in significant over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment for indolent tumors. The fusion of the transmembrane protease serine 2 with E26 transformation-specific family genes, particularly ERG, is the most widespread genetic alteration in prostate cancer, and data suggest that it is more specific for neoplastic prostate disease and may be of added prognostic value and point toward molecular subtype of PCa. Methods: In this review, retrospective studies and clinical trials were analyzed to highlight the recent advances in our understanding of the cellular consequence of ERG rearrangement, describe its interactions with other genetic and molecular pathways, and discuss its potential diagnostic and prognostic value. Conclusion: ERG over-expression has an emerging role in the diagnosis of PCa pathology, although there is still debate about its prognostic value. Elucidation of the mechanisms of ERG gene rearrangements and expression promises novel therapeutic and diagnostic avenues for prostate cancer. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Almami A.,University of Calgary | Almami A.,Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Institute and Tom Baker Cancer Center | Hegazy S.A.,University of Calgary | Nabbi A.,University of Calgary | And 9 more authors.
Tumor Biology

The inhibitor of growth family member 3 (ING3) is a member of the ING tumor suppressor family. Although its expression has been reported in various types of cancers, the role of ING3 and its prognostic value in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been investigated. ING3 expression and prognostic value was assessed in a cohort of PCa patients (n = 312) treated with transurethral resection of prostate using immumoflourescent automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) system. In vitro studies were carried out in conjunction to investigate its expression in various PCa cell lines. ING3 knockdown was also carried out in DU145 cell lines to assess for any changes in invasion and migration. ING3 expression was highest in benign prostate tissues (mean 3.2 ± 0.54) compared to PCa (mean 2.5 ± 0.26) (p = 0.437), advanced prostate cancer (AdvPCa) (mean 1.5 ± 0.32) (p = 0.004), and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) (mean 2.28 ± 0.32) (p = 0.285). ING3 expression was inversely correlated to Gleason score (p = 0.039) and ETS-related gene (ERG) expression (p = 0.019). Higher ING3 expression was marginally associated with lethal disease (p = 0.052), and this was more pronounced in patients with ERG-negative status (p = 0.018). Inhibition of ING3 in DU145 PCa cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was associated with decreased cell invasion (p = 0.0016) and cell migration compared to control cells. ING3 is significantly associated with PCa disease progression and cancer-specific mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting an oncogenic function of ING3, previously well known as a tumor suppressor protein. Further studies should investigate potential-related pathways in association to ING3. © 2016 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) Source

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