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Kothandapani M.,Arni University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2015

Theoretical analyses on the effect of radiation and MHD on the peristaltic flow of a nanofluid through a porous medium in a two dimensional tapered asymmetric channel has been made. The nanofluid is assumed to be electrically conducting in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The transport equation accounts the both Brownian motion and thermophoresis along with the radiation reaction. The problem has been further simplified with the authentic assumptions of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. The analytical expressions obtained for the axial velocity, stream function, temperature field, nanoparticle fraction field and pressure gradient provide satisfactory explanation. Influence of various parameters on the flow characteristics have been discussed with the help of graphical results. The trapping phenomenon has also been discussed in detail. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shanmugavel T.,Paavai Engineering College | Raj S.G.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Kumar G.R.,Arni University | Rajarajan G.,Paavai Engineering College
Physics Procedia | Year: 2014

Nanocrystalline form of manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) has been synthesized by simple sol-gel auto combustion method using citric acid as chelating agent. The obtained nanocrystalline powders of manganese ferrite were subjected to structural and magnetic measurements. Temperature dependent magnetization was also carried out for the single phase nanocrystalline manganese ferrite and the results have been discussed in detail. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Singla A.,Chiba University | Singla A.,Arni University | Iwasa H.,Chiba University | Iwasa H.,Chiba Prefectural Agricultural and Forestry Research Center | Inubushi K.,Chiba University
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2014

Biogas production generates digested slurry, as a byproduct, which can be used as fertilizer after its conversion into digested liquid and biochar. A microcosm-based study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizer (CF), digested liquid (DL) and varying concentrations of biogas digested slurry based-biochar along with DL on N2O flux, CO2 flux, soil chemical properties and crop yield for three continuous cropping cycles of komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) from April to July 2013. Analyses revealed that DL-treated soils released almost equal cumulative amounts of N2O and CO2 as soils treated with CF. The soil mineral-N contents were also similar for the DL- and CF-treated soils while DL application increased the soluble organic carbon (SOC) content of the soil compared to CF treatment. The application of slurry-based biochar increased N2O and CO2 flux, which, in turn, appeared to depend upon biochar concentration. The application of biochar probably increased the nitrification rate as biochar-treated soils had higher values of NO3 −-N and lower values of NH4 +-N compared to soils not treated with biochar at most of the observations. The SOC content was also the highest in biochar-treated soils. The overall crop yield for three cropping cycles was the highest in DL and biochar at low application rate (BL), and it was lower in CF, biochar at medium (BM) and high (BH) application rate. This study indicates that the application of DL could be an effective strategy to minimize the use of CF, without affecting N2O flux, CO2 flux, soil mineral N, and increasing crop productivity. The effects of slurry-based biochar on greenhouse gases flux and crop yield depends on the application rate of biochar. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Rana S.B.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Singh R.P.P.,Arni University
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2016

In this study, pure ZnO and Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using the wet chemical precipitation method. Pure and Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV–visible (UV–Vis) and FTIR spectroscopy. The XRD investigation of pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles samples reveal and confirm the formation of single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure, without formation of any secondary and other impurity phases. XRD results further reveals the shifting of characteristics peak toward higher 2θ (theta) angle with Ni doping. This shifting of the XRD peaks toward higher angle clearly indicates that Ni ions are effectively incorporated in the ZnO lattice. Surface morphology of pure and Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles samples was performed by using the SEM confirms the formation of spherical nanocrystallites with fine and clear defined boundaries. EDS spectroscopy indicates the substitution of dopant Ni2+ effectively in lattice site of Zn2+ as evident from XRD result also. The carriers i.e. donors confined on the Ni sites were confirmed from the micro Raman spectroscopy. Optical property of Ni-doped samples is confirmed by using the UV–Vis absorption which showed blue shift in absorption edge as compared to undoped ZnO nanoparticles. Undoped and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit considerable changes in the M–H loop, specifically the diamagnetic response changed into ferromagnetic character for Ni doped samples in VSM investigation. The antibacterial activities of the Nickel doped zinc oxide were studied against Gram-negative (Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and E. coli) via using agar well diffusion technique. Further, these Ni doped nanoparticles were then applied as antibacterial agent to control the microorganisms or bacterial growth. Ni-doping on zinc oxide and exposure of sunlight enhanced the antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens which isolate at 40–45 μg concentration. Interestingly in this study, most effective antibacterial results were obtained against the water related bacteria such as E. coli and V. cholerae for Ni-doped ZnO NPs. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Sivakumar P.,Anna University | Bhagiyalakshmi M.,Arni University | Anbarasu K.,Tamilnadu Co operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd
Fuel | Year: 2012

An anaerobic process for the treatment of spoiled milk from the milk processing industry was investigated. It was carried out in a laboratory scale batch reactor and using the obtained data, it was scaled up to a pilot Anaerobic Sequential Batch Reactor (ASBR). The processes include acclimatization of seed consortia and start up of the reactor under room condition. The batch reactor was studied at different pH, inoculum dosage, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loading. The scaled up pilot plant is of 100 L capacity and it was observed continuously for 30 days. At steady state, the efficiency of the pilot plant in removing COD was found to be 92.80%, and it was able to produce biogas volume of 0.311 m 3 for 1 kg COD degradation. The results obtained showed that biogas contained a maximum of 69.18% of methane. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vinoba M.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Bhagiyalakshmi M.,Arni University | Jeong S.K.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Yoon Y.I.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Nam S.C.,Korea Institute of Energy Research
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) was immobilized onto mesoporous SBA-15 surfaces that had been covalently functionalized using one of three amine compounds, namely, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), and octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS). Amine functionalization over SBA-15 was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, BET analysis, and 29Si and 13C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. HCA immobilization was verified by FT-IR spectroscopy. The catalytic activity toward hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (p-NPA) was calculated for free and immobilized HCA. The k cat values for HCA/TEPA/SBA-15, HCA/TAEA/SBA-15, and HCA/OAPS/SBA-15 were found to be 7182, 7368, and 7569 M -1 s -1, respectively. The activities of immobilized HCA were retained even after long-term storage, exposure to high temperatures, and reuse for 40 cycles. For comparison, CO 2 hydration and sequestration were measured in the presence of both free and immobilized HCA. Importantly, the CO 2 conversion efficiency was calculated using the ion chromatography method. The CO 2 capture efficiency of immobilized HCA was 36 times higher than that of free HCA, and 75% of the initial enzymatic activity was retained through 40 cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Boopathi G.,Presidency College at Chennai | Gokul Raj S.,Technology University | Ramesh Kumar G.,Arni University | Mohan R.,Presidency College at Chennai
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015

Hexagonal phase Gd1-xSmx(OH)3 nanorods were successfully synthesized through precipitation technique. Cubic phase Gd2-xSmxO3 nanorods were obtained by dehydration of the corresponding Gd1-xSmx(OH)3 nanorods. The dopant percentage was optimized and maintained at 5 at.%. The hydroxide and oxide nanophosphors were systematically characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry. The obtained results were discussed in detail. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Gokul Raj S.,Vel Tech Dr.RR & Dr.SR Technical University | Ramesh Kumar G.,Arni University
Advanced Materials Letters | Year: 2011

Single crystals of pure and Deuterated L-alanine have been grown by both slow cooling and seed rotation techniques. The grown nonlinear optical crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction for determining its lattice parameters and morphology. Thermal expansion measurements were carried for the Deuterated crystals of L-alanine using thermomechanical analyzer in order to ascertain the strain tensors along the three mutually perpendicular crystallographic directions. Microhardness study was also undergone on deuterated L-alanine single crystals on a prominent plane for determining the mechanical strength of the grown crystals. The results have been discussed in detail. © 2011 VBRI press.

Vinoba M.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Bhagiyalakshmi M.,Arni University | Jeong S.K.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Yoon Y.I.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Nam S.C.,Korea Institute of Energy Research
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2012

Human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) was conjugated via electrostatic interactions onto silver nanoparticles confined to amine-functionalized mesoporous SBA-15. Three amine compounds were tested for their effectiveness in immobilizing silver nanoparticles: tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), and octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS). The enzymatic activities of the free and nanosilver conjugated HCA were assessed by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (p-NPA) and the hydration of CO 2, which was sequestered as CaCO 3. The CO 2 conversion efficiency was calculated using ion chromatography methods, and CaCO 3 formation was observed by polarized light microscopy. Precipitated CaCO 3 was characterized by XRD and FE-SEM. After 30 cycles, the silver conjugated HCA showed the highest operational stability, and the CO 2 capture efficiency was ∼25 fold higher than that of free HCA. Storage stability studies suggested that conjugated HCA retained nearly 87% of its activity after 30 days. The results demonstrated that immobilized HCA was reusable and stable under storage conditions. Thus, this nanobiocatalyst is a suitable candidate for the capture and sequestration of CO 2. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vinoba M.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Bhagiyalakshmi M.,Arni University | Jeong S.K.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Yoon Y.I.I.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Nam S.C.,Korea Institute of Energy Research
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2012

Bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) was immobilized on spherical SBA-15 through various approaches, including covalent attachment (BCA-CA), adsorption (BCA-ADS), and cross-linked enzyme aggregation (BCA-CLEA). The spherical SBA-15 was characterized by XRD, BET, and FE-SEM analysis. 29Si CP-MAS NMR was used to confirm the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafting (an intermediate step in the immobilization technique), and the immobilization of BCA was confirmed by FT-IR spectrum. The catalytic activities for hydration of CO 2 were calculated for free and immobilized BCA with and without buffer. The K cat values for free BCA, BCA-CLEA, BCA-CA and BCA-ADS were 0.79, 0.78, 0.58 and 0.36s -1, respectively, indicating that BCA-CLEA showed a comparatively higher hydration of CO 2 than BCA-CA and BCA-ADS, which was nearly the same as free BCA. The amount of CaCO 3 precipitated over free BCA, BCA-CLEA, BCA-CA and BCA-ADS were 140, 138, 135 and 130mg, respectively. Performance studies, including assays on reusability, thermal stability and storage stability, were also carried out for BCA-CLEA. The results confirmed that BCA-CLEA is reusable, thermally stable and, withstands storage, and is thus a suitable candidate for use in hydration and sequestration of CO 2. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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