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Mendieta, Spain

Salinas C.X.,ARNATUR | Salinas C.X.,University of Chile | Gironas J.,University of Chile | Pinto M.,Tecnalia
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2015

The aim of this study is to address the problem of balance between water scarcity and sustainability, which are the key components of water security of cities located in arid lands, particularly those under constant expansion and population growth. In this paper, we have highlighted the problem of water security for the sustainability of the La Serena-Coquimbo conurbation (LSCC). The coastal LSCC is located at the outlet of the Elqui River basin, in the southern edge of the Chilean Atacama Desert. We have analyzed the available information including drinking water production and consumption data, groundwater levels, precipitation data and population data. Between the years 2009 and 2013 the total water consumption for the area has significantly increased. On the other hand, there has been a significant decrease trend in the precipitations and the groundwater levels show a decrease of about 30 m between the years 1995 and 2014. In a few years, this urban area could face a general water scarcity problem if the drought conditions remain unchanged and if the water demand trend for the agricultural, mining and drinking water continues its increasing. The cities located in the arid lands are particularly vulnerable to water scarcity because their populations are highly concentrated and requires reliable supplies of water to make possible human and economic activities. We discuss how adaptation of the arid land urban areas to water scarcity requires a range of solutions, including economic incentives, regulatory measures, and technology. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Salinas C.X.,ARNATUR | Mendieta J.,ARNATUR
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

Desertification is considered a global environmental problem with political and socioeconomic implications. Desertification, exacerbated by climate change, is the largest environmental problem in Chile affecting almost two third of the national territory. This study takes place in a latitudinal gradient of the north-central Chilean drylands, where desertification is a threat to agriculture, livestock and forestry (ALF). In the context of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the implementation of the Chilean National Action Programme (NAP), the country is conducting policies and investing in mitigation strategies to combat land degradation and desertification. The main objective of this paper is the development of an integrative methodological approach using real data of the territorial and socioeconomic indicators. With the proposed methodology we assess the impact of the mitigation and land degradation strategies supported by the ALF promotion agencies in the fight against desertification, projecting different scenarios of change. The data were collected in 2008 in Santiago, Chile. The results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that technical irrigation and the improvement of grasslands and pastures play an important role in the fight against desertification. The results of the model projections are consistent, suggesting that the efforts of the ALF promotion agencies have a positive impact in fighting desertification. Inaction of ALF mitigation strategies would increase desertification. This methodological approach, performed with real data, is a contribution for the development of integrative assessments, for replication and for forthcoming discussions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Salinas C.X.,ARNATUR | Mendieta J.,ARNATUR
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

Land recovery and the improvement of lands affected by desertification for agricultural use, is achieved when a sustained recovery of agricultural productivity over time is obtained. In the areas affected by desertification and drought, it is common that the ecosystems do not have enough funding for water management and irrigation. This situation leads to an inadequate assessment of the environmental goods and services in arid zones. As a result we have a misuse of these dry lands. Many countries are implementing policies and making investments and efforts to mitigate arid land degradation and desertification through the National Action Programs (NAP). However, for the long term planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies, it is necessary to know the cost of recovery and land improvement in certain areas in order to forecast the budgets. This is the main objective of this paper in order to combat desertification and drought in central northern Chile. We have calculated a recovery cost per hectare by region and for each of the agriculture, livestock and forestry (ALF) promotion agencies. The results indicate that the cost of land reclamation in the northern regions is much higher than in the southern regions of this studied area. The cost is especially high for Region II, where investment per hectare is almost to 3000 US$ per hectare. At the other extreme is the Region VII, in the south of the studied area where the investment required per hectare barely reaches 500 US$. The contribution of the promotion agencies to the total cost also varied among regions and agencies. We discuss the results within a context of recovery cost per hectare depending on the different environmental characteristics and agricultural development of each of the studied regions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Salinas C.X.,ARNATUR | Mendieta J.,ARNATUR
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

Climate change will further increase the risk of desertification, which is already affecting large areas of the world. Many countries are making investments for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies to combat desertification. The long term effectiveness of these strategies necessarily require a socioeconomic return for its sustainability. The main goal of our paper is to assess the relation between the mitigation and adaptation investments and the socio-economy of the rural population. The area of study is located in north-central Chile. The northern regions are mostly composed by arid land, which can be considered as a marginal area for agriculture. The area formed by the southern regions is optimal for the agricultural activity which is characterized by an industrialized agriculture with and increased use of technology. The indicators we have used for our study are the following: the Investments provided by the Chilean Agriculture Livestock and Forestry (ALF) promotion agencies, the ALF Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Population Employed in ALF. The results show that the relationship between the investments and the socioeconomy varies among the regions analyzed. Investments are positively correlated (P ≤ 0. 05) with the ALF GDP and the labor in ALF in the northern regions, but do not seem to be directly related to labor in ALF in the southern regions (P ≥ 0. 05). Therefore, our conclusion is that the Investments are significantly relevant for the agricultural activity in the arid northern regions, while in the southern regions they have no direct impact on the labor in ALF. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Salinas C.X.,ARNATUR | Mendieta J.,ARNATUR
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on the determination of the most effective set of mitigation and adaptation strategies applied to combat land degradation and drought in a latitudinal gradient. This study was carried out in Chile, in a latitude gradient between 17° 30′S and 36° 33′S. The northern regions are mostly formed by desert and dry land, which can be considered as marginal areas for agriculture. On the other hand, the area formed by the southern regions has an industrialized agriculture where an increased use of technology takes place and where the climate and water availability are optimal for the development of agriculture. The period considered in this study was between 2000 and 2007. We calculated an Investment Effectiveness Index. Afterwards, and in order to assess the effectiveness of the financial support, we performed multiple regressions (P ≤ 0.05), where the Index was considered as the independent variable, and the annual difference of the area affected by a high risk of desertification was considered as the dependent variable. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of the different set of the strategies applied to fight against desertification and drought varies in a latitudinal gradient. Thus, in arid and hyper arid areas the promotion of modern irrigation systems seems to be effective in combating desertification, while in Mediterranean climates the reforestation strategies seem to play an important role. Our results suggest that in areas heavily degraded by overgrazing, the most effective strategies are those oriented to obtain a permanent vegetation cover on degraded soils. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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