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Sangolqui, Ecuador

Pistolesi M.,University of Pisa | Rosi M.,University of Pisa | Cion R.,University of Cagliari | Cashman K.V.,University of Oregon | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2011

Cotopaxi volcano, situated in the Eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. The volcano is well known for the magnificence of its almost perfectly symmetrical cone topped by ice and snow and for the destructive power of its large-scale, syneruptive lahars. This paper presents a stratigraphic study of the post-twelfth-century eruptive products that reveals the existence of 21 continuous tephra beds. Most of them were characterized from both a physical (dispersal areas, deposit volumes, peak Mass Discharge Rate [MDR] of the eruptions) and compositional point of view. New 14C dates, linked with a new examination of historical chronicles, allow us to create a new chronostratigraphic scheme for this period of activity, which is bracketed by the emplacement of a regional tephra marker (A.D. 1140 ash bed from Quilotoa volcano) and the present day. The first period (A.D. 1150-1742) included only two moderate-intensity explosive eruptions, the oldest being possibly related to a dome disruption. In contrast, the period A.D. 1742-1880 started with two high-intensity, Plinian eruptions (maximum column heights of 25 and 29 km), followed by several short-lived but sustained, convective episodes. Deposits of pyroclastic surges and scoria flows were emplaced during some of these short-lived events and may have been related to column collapse and boiling over activity, respectively. Post-1880 activity, reported in 1904, 1906, and 1912, likely consisted of minor explosions that affected only the crater area. Our study of recent activity at Cotopaxi shows that high dispersive power (peak mass discharge rates from 1.1 to 9.3 × 107 kg/s) is associated with the eruption of only moderate amounts of magma (1.1 × 1010-6.0 × 1011 kg, or ~0.005-0.2 km3, Dense Rock Equivalent [DRE]). Additionally, although the past 2000 yr of activity at Coto-paxi have been interpreted to reflect a fairly uniform magma supply rate, detailed analysis of the past centuries, and a reanalysis of data from the past 2000 yr show that Coto-paxi's eruptive activity is characterized by clusters of eruptive events that are separated by periods of long quiescence punctuated by isolated eruptions, often of slightly more evolved magma. No systematic variations in composition emerge in the time sequence. Although new magmatic phases commonly start with the eruption of mafic magma, this is not always observed. Additionally, eruption clusters may show either compositional trends of increasing SiO2 content or abrupt compositional changes within a cluster. We interpret the temporal and compositional variations in eruptive activity to reflect the complex interplay of deep versus shallow magmatic processes. An important result from the perspective of volcanic hazards is our conclusion that, over the studied period, no clear relation exists among repose time, eruption magnitude, and magma composition. This conclusion contrasts with the periodic eruptive behavior that has been postulated at many central volcanoes worldwide, thus inviting a reexamination of other intermediate-composition volcanic systems and a reassessment of the assumption of periodic activity. © 2011 Geological Society of America.

Petrucci V.,Federal University of Fluminense | Carrera E.V.,Army Polytechnic School | Loques O.,Federal University of Fluminense | Leite J.C.B.,Federal University of Fluminense | Mosse D.,University of Pittsburgh
Proceedings - 11th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing, CCGrid 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper proposes and evaluates an approach for power and performance management in virtualized server clusters. The major goal of our approach is to reduce power consumption in the cluster while meeting performance requirements. The contributions of this paper are: (1) a simple but effective way of modeling power consumption and capacity of servers even under heterogeneous and changing workloads, and (2) an optimization strategy based on a mixed integer programming model for achieving improvements on power-efficiency while providing performance guarantees in the virtualized cluster. In the optimization model, we address application workload balancing and the often ignored switching costs due to frequent and undesirable turning servers on/off and VM relocations. We show the effectiveness of the approach applied to a server cluster test bed. Our experiments show that our approach conserves about 50 of the energy required by a system designed for peak workload scenario, with little impact on the applications' performance goals. Also, by using prediction in our optimization strategy, further QoS improvement was achieved. © 2011 IEEE.

Beker U.,Yildiz Technical University | Cumbal L.,Army Polytechnic School | Duranoglu D.,Yildiz Technical University | Kucuk I.,Yildiz Technical University | Sengupta A.K.,Lehigh University
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2010

The objective of this study is to examine the adsorption-desorption behavior of a magnetically active hybrid sorbent (MAHS) material, prepared by dispersing colloid-like hydrated iron oxide particles in the outer periphery of a macroporous ion-exchange resin (Amberlite XAD-2). The experimental results show that the new sorbent material can simultaneously remove arsenic (V) and a chlorinated organic compound (2,6-dichlorophenol [2,6-DCP]) from aqueous solutions at around neutral pH. The recovery of arsenic and 2,6-DCP from MAHS was conducted using a regenerant containing 50% (v/v) CH3OH + 3% (w/v) NaOH. In less than 10 bed volumes of regenerant, more than 90% of As(V) and 2,6-DCP were recovered. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Thomas C.M.,Texas A&M University | Yong Q.C.,Texas A&M University | Seqqat R.,Texas A&M University | Seqqat R.,Army Polytechnic School | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Science | Year: 2013

Hyperglycaemia up-regulates intracellular AngII (angiotensin II) production in cardiac myocytes, effects of which are blocked more effectively by renin inhibition than ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) or ACEis (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors). In the present study, we determined whether renin inhibition is more effective at preventing diabetic cardiomyopathy than an ARB or ACEi. Diabetes was induced in adult mice for 10 weeks by STZ (streptozotocin). Diabetic mice were treated with insulin, aliskiren (a renin inhibitor), benazeprilat (an ACEi) or valsartan (an ARB) via subcutaneous mini-pumps. Significant impairment in diastolic and systolic cardiac functions was observed in diabetic mice, which was completely prevented by all three RAS (renin-angiotensin system) inhibitors. Hyperglycaemia significantly increased cardiac oxidative stress and circulating inflammatory cytokines, which were blocked by aliskiren and benazeprilat, whereas valsartan was partially effective. Diabetes increased cardiac PRR (prorenin receptor) expression and nuclear translocation of PLZF (promyelocytic zinc finger protein), which was completely prevented by aliskiren and valsartan, and partially by benazeprilat. Renin inhibition provided similar protection of cardiac function to ARBs and ACEis. Activation of PLZF by PRR represented a novel mechanism in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Differential effects of the three agents on oxidative stress, cytokines and PRR expression suggested subtle differences in their mechanisms of action. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society.

Ruiz A.,Army Polytechnic School | Zurita C.,Central University of Ecuador | Zurita J.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: Colonization of health care workers with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an important route of dispersion and infection of MRSA and has been implicated in epidemic outbreaks. The objective of the present study was to assess prevalence of MRSA colonization in the anterior nares of health care personnel at the intensive care unit (ICUs) of three hospital facilities in Quito, Ecuador. Methodology: The prevalence of MRSA in specimens from all ICU health care workers of three hospitals was measured by using a real-time PCR assay and CHROMagar MRSA. Results: The prevalence of MRSA among the three health care facilities was 2.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of MRSA colonization was relatively low compared to other studies and showed no differences between hospital facilities. © 2014 Ruiz et al.

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