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Ashraf S.,Armenian State Agrarian University | Afshari H.,Islamic Azad University at Damghan | Ebadi A.G.,Islamic Azad University
International Journal of Physical Sciences

In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in Damghan plain for irrigation purposes, 199 surveyed wells with GPS data used to produce the map. The features that generally had considered for evaluation of the suitable quality of groundwater for irrigation are salinity, water infiltration rate, and specific ion toxicity. The SAR, ions Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3 2-, HCO3- -, SO4 2-, Cl-, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), pH were analyze as the evaluation indexes. The EC map indicates the presence of about 0.04% of the study area; groundwater lie in good range (none degree of restriction on use) 61.38% slight to moderate and 38.58% severe for irrigation purposes. The suitable zones for ECw are in the central and northwestern and portion of south of the study area (61.42%). The quality of groundwater for the sodium hazard on infiltration is in 98.9% of study area none degree of restriction on use and in 0.6% slight to moderate and 0.5% severe. The suitable zones for infiltration have no degree of restriction on use in majority of the study area. The maps result of crops yield potential as influenced by irrigation water salinity (ECw) indicates that crops barley>wheat > Alfalfa respectively have yield potential more against ECW in study area (99.42,92.3 and 0.23%). The results of thematic maps of sodiumw, choloridw were overlaid with maps of sodiumplant, choloridplant showed that the crops yield potential of barley and wheat. Alfalfa in all the study area is 100%. ©2011 Academic Journals. Source

Shokrzadeh M.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences | Rokni M.A.,Mazandaran Environmental Office | Galstvan,Armenian State Agrarian University
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Background and purpose: Water and soil pollution with heavy metals are among serious evergrowing environmental problems. Human activity accounts for much of the poisonous metals and results in increases soil pollution. There are many factors related to soil and plants properties and environmental issues. Release of heavy metal into food chain in critical densities has harmful metabolic and physiologic effects on living creatures. Materials and methods: Three regions including Movaram Kola, Seyyed Mahalleh, Jouybar Mahalleh Kola located in Sari, Jouybar and Qaemshahr (central regions of Mazandaran province) were investigated to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in paddy fields irrigation and Tarom rice within 2010-2011 agricultural year. Sampling included samples of irrigation with water and rice, and field study for qualitative and quantitative properties of rice. Sampling and test method of heavy metals was in accordance with suggestive method of standard book of method. Finally density of heavy metals of samples was measured using atomic absorption machine. For statistical calculation and quantitative study of data Prism, Stata 11 and t-test were applied. Results: In the studied water samples, level of cadmium in Seyyed Mahalleh was higher than standard level which is worrying due to accumulative effect of cadmium. In addition, level of cadmium in rice samples of Jouybar (Mahalleh Kola) and Seyyed Mahalleh was higher than standard level. Levels of chrome in all studied areas were lower than standard levels. Conclusion: Accumulative effects of heavy metals and their harmful effects on human societies could endanger food safety, therefore, more precautions are needed to reduce such effects. Source

Amirhandeh M.S.,Guilan Tobacco Research Center | Nosratabad A.F.,Soil and Water Research Institute | Norouzi M.,Guilan University | Harutyunyan S.,Armenian State Agrarian University
Australian Journal of Crop Science

A field study was carried out during a two-year period (2008 to 2009) in order to investigate on response of Coker 347 (fluecured) tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in vegetative growth stages to inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum at various levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. In a factorial trial and randomized completely block design (RCBD), four levels of N fertilizer (non-fertilizer, 15, 30 and 45 kg ha-1) and three levels of Azotobacter chroococcum (non-inoculation, 1 and 2 kg ha-1) in Coker (fluecured) tobacco with three replications per treatments were applied. Sampling was done in three positions of leaves (priming, cutter and tip). Results revealed that the effect of year of experiment was significant on quantitative characteristics (except leaf length), N uptake and qualitative characteristics (except nicotine in priming). Application of N had significant effect on quantitative characteristics (except number and width of Leaf), N uptake and qualitative characteristics. Inoculation of roots with bacterium had significant effect on Cured leaf weight of cutter, yield, N uptake and qualitative characteristics. Furthermore, the lowest content of leaf length and nicotine in priming and the highest content reducing sugar in priming and tip were observed in non-fertilizer treatment. On the other part, the highest content of nicotine in priming and the lowest content of sugar in priming and tip were observed in treatment with 45 kg.ha-1 N and 2 kg ha-1 bacterium. In general, Azotobacter chroococcum is a suitable inoculant for tobacco cultivation and it could be a strategy to achieve sustainable agriculture. Source

Gohargani J.,Armenian State Agrarian University | Galstyan M.,Armenian State Agrarian University | Moezzi A.,Ahvaz Chamran University
Life Science Journal

For economic assessment of Sulfur application, the present research has applied Thiobacillus Bacterium and organic matter, during 2009 - 2011 for three years, in the calcareouse soil of the Research Field of Agricultural station of Gachsaran-Iran as the split- split plot experiment in the randomized complete blocks design with 18 treatments on a Varity of Hiyolo 401 Canola in three replications. The treatments were: Sulfur (0, 400, 800 kg), Thiobacillus (0, 2, 4 kg) and organic matter (0, 20 tons) in hectare. The combine analysis of variance for three years mentioned factors on some properties as harvest index, biologic yield, seed yield, protein percentage, oil percentage and oil yield showed that the factors alone and together have a significant effect on the qualitative and quantitative economic yield of Canola plant. mean Comparisons of the main and interaction effects between factors showed that the most average of the seed and oil yield has been produced by treatments O2T3S2 which increased, in comparison to the control treatment, the seed and oil yield respectively 154% and 180%. Also, the economic consideration of the project results revealed that exerting this treatment will increase 5320000r (266$) profit in per hectare. Source

Ashraf S.,Armenian State Agrarian University | Afshari H.,Islamic Azad University at Damghan | Munokyan R.,Armenian State Agrarian University | Ebadi A.G.,Islamic Azad University at Damghan
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

A GIS has been used to match the suitability for barley crop based on the requirements of the crop and the quality and characteristics of land. The methodology used for the physical land suitability analysis for barley is a multi-criteria evaluation approach within GIS context. This study, land suitability evaluation based on FAO has been determined for barley irrigated area about 5400 ha the south of plains Damghan. The study was carried out by overlapping all individual maps (soil map units, soil depth map, slope map, texture soil map, and soil fertility) with GIS techniques for physical land suitability classification. The results show that 15.88% of the area is S2 (moderately suitable) and 26.55% S3 (marginally suitable) and 57.57% and N2 (permanently unsuitable) for barley crop. Lack of irrigation suitable water, soil salinity, insufficient rainfall and poor soil fertility are the most serious problems influencing yield and quality of barley. Source

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