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Gibbons R.V.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | Streitz M.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Babina T.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Fried J.R.,Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Dengue is a major cause of illness among travelers and a threat to military troops operating in areas to which it is endemic. Before and during World War II, dengue frequently occurred in US military personnel in Asia and the South Pacific. From the 1960s into the 1990s, dengue often occurred in US troops in Vietnam, the Philippines, Somalia, and Haiti. We found attack rates as high as 80% and periods of convalescence up to 3-1/2 weeks beyond the acute illness. The increase in dengue throughout the world suggests that it will remain a problem for military personnel until an effective vaccine is licensed. Source


Rodkvamtook W.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet | Year: 2012

Scrub typhus caused by the Orientia tsutsugamushi. Rodents, particularly rats, serve as principal reservoir hosts. Infection in man is transmitted by the, chigger bite. Repellents provide an effective agent of protecting individuals from chigger. In the present study 6 plant essential oils were tested for evaluation of their repellent activity against the chigger, Leptotrombidium imphalum. The results showed that Clove oil was significantly more effective than others with ED50 and EC50 of 0.420 mg and 2.3%, followed by Zingiber oil (8.458 mg and 42.3%), Vetiver oil (19.582 mg and 97.9%), Turmeric oil (24.343 mg and 121.7%), Orange oil (27.310 mg and 136.6%) and Boesenbergia oil (30.486 mg and 152.4%). These results suggested that Clove oil was the most efficient repellent against chigger which is the vector for scrub typhus. Source


Nitayaphan S.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Ngauy V.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | O'Connell R.,Us Military Hiv Research Program Mhrp | Excler J.-L.,Foundation Medicine
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2012

The recent evidence in Thailand for protection from acquisition of HIV through vaccination in a mostly heterosexual population has generated considerable hope. Building upon these results and the analysis of the correlates of risk remains among the highest priorities. Improved vaccine concepts including heterologous prime-boost regimens, improved proteins with potent adjuvants and new vectors expressing mosaic antigens may soon enter clinical development to assess vaccine efficacy in men who have sex with men. Identifying heterosexual populations with sufficient HIV incidence for the conduct of efficacy trials represents perhaps the main challenge in Asia. Fostering translational research efforts in Asian countries may benefit from the development of master strategic plans and program management processes. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source


Moroni M.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | Ngudiankama B.F.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Christensen C.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | Olsen C.H.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Paris R.M.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | Kim J.H.,U.S. Army | Robb M.L.,U.S. Army | Robb M.L.,Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc | Michael N.L.,U.S. Army
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2010

Challenges in the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine are myriad with significant hurdles posed by viral diversity, the lack of a human correlate of protection and difficulty in creating immunogens capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies. The implicit requirement for novel approaches to these problems has resulted in vaccine candidates designed to elicit cellular and/or humoral immune responses, to include recombinant DNA, viral and bacterial vectors, and subunit proteins. Here, we review data from clinical studies primarily of poxvirus and adenovirus vector vaccines, used in a heterologous prime-boost combination strategy. Currently, this strategy appears to hold the most promise for an effective vaccine based on results from immunogenicity testing and nonhuman primate challenge models, as well as the modest efficacy recently observed in the Thai prime-boost trial. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

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