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Silver Spring, MD, United States

Ponlawat A.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Kankaew P.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Chanaimongkol S.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Pongsiri A.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2016

The efficacy of a metofluthrin-impregnated net (MIN) known as the "Mushikonazu" on the house entry behavior of female Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus mosquitoes was evaluated using a semi-field 50-m tunnel setup. While the MIN is labeled for the control of chironomids and moth flies, this study determined the feasibility of using the device, given its current construction and metofluthrin formulation, as a spatial repellent against mosquitoes. Sentinel and cone bioassays were used to determine the insecticidal effect of the MIN. A spatial activity index (SAI) was calculated to evaluate responses of the mosquitoes. For the spatial repellent evaluation against Ae. aegypti, the overall mean of SAI was slightly less than 0 at wk 1 after the MIN application and then decreased for the last 4 wk showing a preference to treatment tent. For An. dirus, the mean SAI at wk 1 was positive, indicating a presumed repellent effect of the MIN against An. dirus. For the subsequent 4 wk, the SAI was negative, indicating a preference for the MIN. Results suggested that the MIN may not be a promising approach to repel Ae. aegypti and An. dirus under field conditions in Thailand. However, it remains probable that the MIN may be effective as a spatial repellent if modifications are made to the metofluthrin concentration or formulation and/or the construction of the device. Copyright © 2016 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source


Chong S.T.,5th Medical Detachment | Kim H.C.,5th Medical Detachment | Lee I.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kollars Jr. T.M.,Medical Section | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. © 2013, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. Source


Carpenter T.L.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2011

Dr. Harrison Gray Dyar Jr. (1866-1929) was an early-20th-century expert in taxonomy and biology of culicid Diptera. At an early age, Dyar became interested in the biology, life history, and taxonomy of Lepidoptera, which he continued throughout his entire career. Dyar pursued his passion for entomology, and during his formative years, professionals sent Lepidoptera specimens to him for identification. As his prominence was well known to Leland Howard, then the honorary curator of the US National Museum of Natural History, he was asked and accepted the position as honorary custodian of Lepidoptera in 1897, which later included periods of service with the US Department of Agriculture Bureau of Entomology and the US Army Officers' Reserve Corps. This position went without stipend and it was Dyar's personal wealth that allowed him to continue his love of entomology. However, the museum did provide limited staff and funds for illustrators, supplies, and travel. In the early 1900s, his interests expanded to include mosquitoes where he concentrated on their life histories and taxonomy. Throughout his career, Dyar often criticized colleagues, both personally and in publications, often with interludes of peace to coauthor articles and books. His legacy of original scientific work is of lasting significance to public health and entomology communities, in recognition of which he was selected as the 2011 AMCA memorial lecture honoree. Source


Kobylinski K.C.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | Alout H.,Colorado State University | Foy B.D.,Colorado State University | Clements A.,Australian National University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Recently there have been calls for the eradication of malaria and the elimination of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Malaria and STHs overlap in distribution, and STH infections are associated with increased risk for malaria. Indeed, there is evidence that suggests that STH infection may facilitate malaria transmission. Malaria and STH coinfection may exacerbate anemia, especially in pregnant women, leading to worsened child development and more adverse pregnancy outcomes than these diseases would cause on their own. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans for malaria parasite transmission suppression is being investigated as a potential malaria elimination tool. Adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs would maximize effects against STHs. A proactive, integrated control platform that targets malaria and STHs would be extremely cost-effective and simultaneously reduce human suffering caused by multiple diseases. This paper outlines the benefits of adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs for malaria parasite transmission suppression. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source


Chong S.T.,5th Medical Detachment | Kim H.C.,5th Medical Detachment | Lee I.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kollars Jr. T.M.,Medical Section | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

As part of the 65th Medical Brigade tick-borne disease surveillance program to determine the abundance, geographical and seasonal distributions, and tick-borne pathogens present in the Republic of Korea, dragging and sweeping methods were compared to determine their efficiency for collecting ticks in grass and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forest habitats at military training sites and privately owned lands in northern Gyeonggi Province near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004-2005. Three species of Ixodid ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis flava, and Ixodes nipponensis, were collected. Overall, H. longicornis adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from grass and deciduous forest habitats, accounting for 98.2 and 66.2%, respectively, of all ticks collected. H. flava adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from conifer and mixed forests, accounting for 81.6, and 77.8%, respectively, of all ticks collected. I. nipponensis adults and nymphs accounted for 9.3% of all ticks collected from mixed forests, were less commonly collected from deciduous (4.1%) and conifer (4.1%) forests, and infrequently collected from grass habitats (0.9%). Overall, there were no significant differences between dragging and sweeping methods for the three species when the areas sampled were similar (sweeping = 2 × the area over the same transect). Adults and nymphs of H. longicornis were most commonly collected from April-August, while those of H. flava and I. nipponensis were most commonly collected during April-July and again during October. Larvae of all three species were most frequently observed from July-September. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

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