Armed Forces Pest Management Board

Silver Spring, MD, United States

Armed Forces Pest Management Board

Silver Spring, MD, United States
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Ponlawat A.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Khongtak P.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Jaichapor B.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Pongsiri A.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Evans B.P.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2017

Background: Sampling for adult mosquito populations is a means of evaluating the efficacy of vector control operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate and identify the most efficacious mosquito traps and combinations of attractants for malaria vector surveillance along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: In the first part of the study, the BG-Sentinel™ Trap (BGS Trap) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC LT) baited with different attractants (BG-lure® and CO2) were evaluated using a Latin square experimental design. The six configurations were BGS Trap with BG-lure, BGS Trap with BG-lure plus CO2, BGS Trap with CO2, CDC LT with BG-lure, CDC LT with BG lure plus CO2, and CDC LT with CO2. The second half of the study evaluated the impact of light color on malaria vector collections. Colors included the incandescent bulb, ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), green light stick, red light stick, green LED, and red LED. Results: A total of 8638 mosquitoes consisting of 42 species were captured over 708 trap-nights. The trap types, attractants, and colored lights affected numbers of female anopheline and Anopheles minimus collected (GLM, P < 0.01). Results revealed that BGS Trap captured many anophelines but was significantly less than the CDC LT. The CDC LT, when baited with BG-lure plus CO2 captured the greatest number of anopheline females with a catch rate significantly higher than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure or CO2 alone (P < 0.05). The number of anopheline females collected from the CDC LT baited with CO2 was greater than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure (646 vs 409 females). None of the alternative lights evaluated exceeded the performance of the incandescent light bulb in terms of the numbers of anopheline and An. minimus collected. Conclusion: We conclude that the CDC LT augmented with an incandescent light shows high potential for malaria vector surveillance when baited with CO2 and the BG-lure in combination and can be effectively used as the new gold standard technique for collecting malaria vectors in Thailand. © 2017 The Author(s).


PubMed | Northern Virginia Community College, Armed Forces Pest Management Board, University of California at Santa Barbara, Mammal Section and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2016

Despite the established importance of rodents as reservoirs of vector-borne zoonoses in East Africa, there is relatively limited information regarding the infestation parameters and host associations of ectoparasites that vector many such pathogens among small mammals in this region. Between 2009 and 2013, small mammals were live-trapped in the semiarid savanna of Kenya. A subset of these individual hosts, including 20 distinct host taxa, was examined for ectoparasites, which were identified to species. Species of fleas, ticks, mites, and sucking lice were recorded. Based on these data, we calculated host-specific infestation parameters, documented host preferences among ectoparasites, conducted a rarefaction analysis and extrapolation to determine if ectoparasites were adequately sampled, and assessed nestedness for fleas to understand how pathogens might spread in this system. We found that the flea community structure was significantly nested. Understanding the ectoparasite network structure may have significant human relevance, as at least seven of the ectoparasite species collected are known vectors of pathogens of medical importance in the region, including Yersinia pestis, Rickettsia spp., and Theileria parva, the causative agents of plague, spotted fevers and other rickettsial illnesses in humans, and theileriosis, respectively.


Chong S.T.,5th Medical Detachment | Kim H.C.,5th Medical Detachment | Lee I.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kollars Jr. T.M.,Medical Section | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. © 2013, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine.


Chong S.T.,5th Medical Detachment | Kim H.C.,5th Medical Detachment | Lee I.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kollars Jr. T.M.,Medical Section | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

As part of the 65th Medical Brigade tick-borne disease surveillance program to determine the abundance, geographical and seasonal distributions, and tick-borne pathogens present in the Republic of Korea, dragging and sweeping methods were compared to determine their efficiency for collecting ticks in grass and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forest habitats at military training sites and privately owned lands in northern Gyeonggi Province near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004-2005. Three species of Ixodid ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis flava, and Ixodes nipponensis, were collected. Overall, H. longicornis adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from grass and deciduous forest habitats, accounting for 98.2 and 66.2%, respectively, of all ticks collected. H. flava adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from conifer and mixed forests, accounting for 81.6, and 77.8%, respectively, of all ticks collected. I. nipponensis adults and nymphs accounted for 9.3% of all ticks collected from mixed forests, were less commonly collected from deciduous (4.1%) and conifer (4.1%) forests, and infrequently collected from grass habitats (0.9%). Overall, there were no significant differences between dragging and sweeping methods for the three species when the areas sampled were similar (sweeping = 2 × the area over the same transect). Adults and nymphs of H. longicornis were most commonly collected from April-August, while those of H. flava and I. nipponensis were most commonly collected during April-July and again during October. Larvae of all three species were most frequently observed from July-September. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Kobylinski K.C.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | Alout H.,Colorado State University | Foy B.D.,Colorado State University | Clements A.,Australian National University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Recently there have been calls for the eradication of malaria and the elimination of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Malaria and STHs overlap in distribution, and STH infections are associated with increased risk for malaria. Indeed, there is evidence that suggests that STH infection may facilitate malaria transmission. Malaria and STH coinfection may exacerbate anemia, especially in pregnant women, leading to worsened child development and more adverse pregnancy outcomes than these diseases would cause on their own. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans for malaria parasite transmission suppression is being investigated as a potential malaria elimination tool. Adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs would maximize effects against STHs. A proactive, integrated control platform that targets malaria and STHs would be extremely cost-effective and simultaneously reduce human suffering caused by multiple diseases. This paper outlines the benefits of adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs for malaria parasite transmission suppression. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Colacicco-Mayhugh M.G.,U.S. Army | Grieco J.P.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Putnam J.L.,United States Air Force Academy | Burkett D.A.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board | Coleman R.E.,U.S. Army
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

In this study, we examined the effect of weather and moon illumination on sand fly activity, as measured by light trap collections made between 2 May 2003 and 25 October 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Wind speed, temperature, dew point, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination were entered into principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were entered into stepwise regression to develop a model of the impact of the weather on sand fly collections. Wind speed, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination each had a strong inverse relationship with the number of sand flies collected, whereas temperature displayed a direct relationship to sand fly collections. Our data indicate that sand fly light trap catches at Tallil Air Base are highest on warm, clear nights with low wind speed and minimal illumination from the moon.


PubMed | U.S. Army and Armed Forces Pest Management Board
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2016

Here, we present the genome sequences of one mesonivirus and four novel arboviruses observed in Culex bitaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens, captured in and near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. Results suggest the ubiquitous presence of mesoniviruses and the discovery of a potentially new species of arboviruses in field-captured mosquitoes.


Carpenter T.L.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2011

Dr. Harrison Gray Dyar Jr. (1866-1929) was an early-20th-century expert in taxonomy and biology of culicid Diptera. At an early age, Dyar became interested in the biology, life history, and taxonomy of Lepidoptera, which he continued throughout his entire career. Dyar pursued his passion for entomology, and during his formative years, professionals sent Lepidoptera specimens to him for identification. As his prominence was well known to Leland Howard, then the honorary curator of the US National Museum of Natural History, he was asked and accepted the position as honorary custodian of Lepidoptera in 1897, which later included periods of service with the US Department of Agriculture Bureau of Entomology and the US Army Officers' Reserve Corps. This position went without stipend and it was Dyar's personal wealth that allowed him to continue his love of entomology. However, the museum did provide limited staff and funds for illustrators, supplies, and travel. In the early 1900s, his interests expanded to include mosquitoes where he concentrated on their life histories and taxonomy. Throughout his career, Dyar often criticized colleagues, both personally and in publications, often with interludes of peace to coauthor articles and books. His legacy of original scientific work is of lasting significance to public health and entomology communities, in recognition of which he was selected as the 2011 AMCA memorial lecture honoree.


Carpenter T.L.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board | Robbins R.G.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board
Systematic and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

Citations and emendations are presented for 41 encomial works honoring the preeminent medical acarologist and entomologist Dr. Harry Hoogstraal. © 2012 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society.


Robbins R.G.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board | Carpenter T.L.,Armed Forces Pest Management Board
Systematic and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011

Documentation is presented for 292 common names of ticks authored by Dr. Harry Hoogstraal, the twentieth century's preeminent authority on ticks and tick-borne diseases. ©2011 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society.

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