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PubMed | Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Hallym University, Mahatma Gandhi Institute, Seoul National University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Korean medical science | Year: 2016

Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.


PubMed | Yonsei University, Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Sangji University and Korea National Rehabilitation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacopuncture | Year: 2015

In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide background knowledge for establishing a new policy with the management and quality control of CAM.Structured and well organized questionnaires were made, and 350 persons were surveyed concerning the providers of CAM or Korean oriental medicine. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed.The questionnaires (182) were collected. The questionnaires identified a total of 73 known providers, such as medicinal professionals or other providers of CAM suppliers, 35.6% of whom had had experience with treating cancer patients (52.6% vs. 29.6%). The treatment methods were a little different: alternative therapy and nutritional therapy being preferred by medicinal professionals and mind body modulation therapy and alternative therapy being preferred by other CAM providers. Four patients (7.4%) experienced side effects, and 6 patients (12.5%) experienced legal problems. As the method for managing the therapy, CAM providers, medicinal professionals, and other CAM providers had different viewpoints. For example, some CAM providers stated that both legislation and an official education on CAM or a national examination were needed as a first step to establish the providers qualifications and that as a second step, a license test was needed for quality control. To the contrary, medicinal professionals stated that a license test was needed before legislation.Adequate management and quality control of CAM providers is thought to involve both education and legislation.


PubMed | Korea University, Armed Forces Medical Research Institute and Chungcheongnam Do Health and Environment Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2016

Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) are being widely used as specimens for multiplex real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for respiratory virus detection. However, it remains unclear whether NPS specimens are optimal for all viruses targeted by multiplex RT-PCR. In addition, the procedure to obtain NPS specimens causes coughing in most patients, which possibly increases the risk of nosocomial spread of viruses. In this study, paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected from 236 adult male patients with suspected acute respiratory illnesses. Specimens were tested for 16 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Among the specimens collected from the 236 patients, at least 1 respiratory virus was detected in 183 NPS specimens (77.5%) and 180 saliva specimens (76.3%). The rates of detection of respiratory viruses were comparable for NPS and saliva specimens (P = 0.766). Nine virus species and 349 viruses were isolated, 256 from NPS specimens and 273 from saliva specimens (P = 0.1574). Adenovirus was detected more frequently in saliva samples (P < 0.0001), whereas influenza virus type A and human rhinovirus were detected more frequently in NPS specimens (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0289, respectively). The possibility of false-positive adenovirus detection from saliva samples was excluded by direct sequencing. In conclusion, neither of the sampling methods was consistently more sensitive than the other. We suggest that these cost-effective methods for detecting respiratory viruses in mixed NPS-saliva specimens might be valuable for future studies.


PubMed | Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Konkuk University, Pusan National University and Catholic University of Korea
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMB reports | Year: 2016

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is known to mediate cancer cell death. Here, we show that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic protein, is regulated by GSK-3 and that GSK-3-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 is crucial for mitochondrial-dependent cell death in paclitaxel-stimulated cells. We demonstrate that MCF7 GSK-3 siRNA cells are more sensitive to cell death than MCF7 GFP control cells and that in the absence of GSK-3, Bcl-2 levels are reduced, a result enhanced by paclitaxel. Paclitaxel-induced JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) activation is critical for Bcl-2 modulation. In the absence of GSK-3, Bcl-2 was unstable in an ubiquitination-dependent manner in both basal- and paclitaxeltreated cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GSK-3-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 influences cytochrome C release and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, our data suggest that GSK-3-dependent regulation of Bcl-2 is crucial for mitochondria-dependent cell death in paclitaxel-mediated breast cancer therapy.


Lee S.J.,Konkuk University | Noh K.T.,Armed Forces Medical Research Institute | Kang T.H.,Konkuk University | Han H.D.,Konkuk University | And 10 more authors.
BMB Reports | Year: 2014

In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β) through Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling by directly binding with TLR4. MAP1305 activates the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAP1305-treated DCs transform naive T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus indicating a key role for this protein in the Th1 polarization of the resulting immune response. Taken together, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 is important for the regulation of innate immune response through DC-mediated proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. © 2014 by the The Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.


Nam D.C.,Gyeongsang National University | Ha Y.M.,Dong - A University | Park M.K.,Dong - A University | Cho S.K.,Armed Forces Medical Research Institute
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Objectives: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a human health hazard. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve endings and accumulate acetylcholine (ACh) at these sites. High levels of ACh and long exposure promote cholinergic crisis. The hydrolysis of OPs by serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) plays a role in cholinergic crisis in humans. Human serum PON1 can break down organophosphate before binding to ChE. We investigated the effect of PON1 polymorphisms on AChE activity after OP treatment. Methods: 50 healthy volunteers were randomly recruited with informed consent. We investigated butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity changes in plasma as a biomarker of AChE after OP treatment in human blood samples immediately following blood sampling. After the standardization of BuChE activity in human blood, we correlated changes in BuChE activity with changes in blood pH. We analyzed the PON1 polymorphisms (rs854560 and rs662) of 50 participants to retrospectively investigate the interindividual variability of changes in BuChE activity. Results: Changes in BuChE activity are strongly correlated with pH changes after OP treatment (R2 = 0.913). We used changes in pH as a surrogate marker for BuChE inhibition after OP treatment. OP treatment significantly decreased BuChE activity by 56.4 ± 5.1% (p < 0.001). The degree of BuChE inhibition was significantly different in the PON1 rs662 genotype (56.10 ± 4.74% vs. 57.96 ± 5.67% vs. 52.34 ± 1.51%; GG vs. GA vs. AA, respectively). Conclusion: Changes in pH can be used as a surrogate marker for the detection of BuChE inhibition after OP exposure. The rs662 polymorphism of PON1 may explain the inter-individual variability in BuChE inhibition. ©2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle.


Lim K.S.,Seoul National University | Lim K.S.,Armed Forces Medical Research Institute | Jang I.-J.,Seoul National University | Kim B.-H.,Seoul National University | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Background: Flecainide acetate is a class Ic antiarrythmic agent that is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isozyme. A previous open-label, 2-period, single-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers found differences in the pharmacokinetics of flecainide between subjects with the CYP2D6 wild-type allele and those with the CYP2D6*10 allele, as well as differences in the pharmacokinetic interaction between flecainide and the CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine between genotype groups. Objective: This study evaluated QTc-interval changes after administration of a single oral dose of flecainide, with and without paroxetine, in relation to CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism. Methods: This was a follow-on to the previous pharmacokinetic study and used data from the same group of healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were grouped by CYP2D6 genotype as follows: CYP2D6*1/*1 or CYP2D6*1/*2 (group 1, extensive metabolizers); CYP2D6*1/*10 (group 2, intermediate metabolizers); and CYP2D6*10/*010 or CYP2D6*10/*36 (group 3, poor metabolizers). Flecainide 200 mg was administered on day 1 (period 1); after a 7-day washout period, subjects received paroxetine 20 mg once daily from day 8 to day 14, and flecainide 200 mg on day 15 (period 2). On days 1 and 15, serial 12-lead ECGs were obtained before flecainide dosing and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after dosing. Baseline ECGs were obtained at the same time points on days -1 and 14. Machine-read changes in the QT interval corrected using the Fridericia formula (QTcF) and manually read changes in the QT interval individually corrected using mixed-effects modeling (QTcI) from time-matched baseline were analyzed by genotype and by period (baseline and paroxetine-inhibited state). The QRS duration and JTc interval (QTcF - QRS) were also determined. Results: Twenty-one healthy volunteers (mean [SD] age, 24.5 [3.0] years; mean height, 173.5 [4.6] cm; mean weight, 69.1 [4.5] kg), 7 in each group, were enrolled in and completed the study. In period 1, all genotype groups had significant increases from time-matched baseline in both the QTcF interval (group 1:17.4 milliseconds [90% CI, 9.9-24.9], P < 0.001; group 2: 11.1 milliseconds [90% CI, 7.9-14.3], P = 0.013; and group 3: 20.5 milliseconds [90% CI, 12.8-28.2], P < 0.001) and the QTcI interval (group 1:15.4 milliseconds [90 % CI, 8.0-22.9], P = 0.001; group 2: 9.1 milliseconds [90% CI, 6.5-11.8], P = 0.030; and group 3:16.4 milliseconds [90% CI, 9.3-23.5], P = 0.001); the extent of increase did not differ significantly between groups. In groups 1 and 2, the least squares mean difference between period 1 and period 2 was statistically significant for the change in QTcF interval (6.5 milliseconds [90 CI, 3.2-9.8], P = 0.002; and 6.7 milliseconds [90% CI, 3.6-9.7], P = 0.001, respectively) and QTcI interval (6.9 milliseconds [90% CI, 4.1-9.8], P < 0.001; and 5.8 milliseconds [90% CI, 3.4-8.3], P < 0.001). In group 3, the least squares mean difference between period 1 and period 2 was statistically significant for the change in QTcI interval (3.9 milliseconds [90% CI, 1.3-6.5], P = 0.015) but not for the change in QT cF interval. The changes in QRS duration did not differ significantly by genotype or period. Consistent with the findings for the QTc interval, the least squares mean difference between period 1 and period 2 was statistically significant for the change in JTc interval in groups 1 and 2 (6.9 milliseconds [90% CI, 3.7-10.2], P = 0.001; and 5.4 milliseconds [90% CI, 2.7-8.2], P = 0.001, respectively) but not in group 3. Conclusion: The extent of drug interaction between flecainide and paroxetine, as reflected in the change in QTc interval (used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker), was influenced by the CYP2D6*10 allele in these healthy Korean male volunteers. © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc.


PubMed | Armed Forces Medical Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medicinal food | Year: 2014

Ellagic acid (EA) is a well- known phytochemical that modulates various cellular processes. It is present in a variety of foods, including grapes, strawberries, and nuts. However, the influence of EA on immunological responses is not well defined. Here, we investigated the effects of EA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). EA was not cytotoxic to DCs. EA suppressed LPS-induced expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), but it did not suppress the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II in BMDCs. In particular, EA blocked LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. LPS-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-) was diminished by EA. We also confirmed that levels of IL-12 and IFN- were not influenced by EA in the presence of a JNK inhibitor. Taken together, these data demonstrate that EA regulates the immune response through the modulation of LPS-induced DC maturation.


PubMed | Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Seoul National University, Chonbuk National University, Seonam University and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMB reports | Year: 2014

In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and IL-1) through Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling by directly binding with TLR4. MAP1305 activates the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAP1305-treated DCs transform nave T cells to polarized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, thus indicating a key role for this protein in the Th1 polarization of the resulting immune response. Taken together, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 is important for the regulation of innate immune response through DC-mediated proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells.


PubMed | Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Konkuk University and Hanseo University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMB reports | Year: 2015

We found that resveratrol enhances interferon (IFN)--induced tryptophanyl-tRNA-synthetase (TTS) expression in bone marrow- derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Resveratrol-induced TTS expression is associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity. In addition, we found that resveratrol regulates nave CD8+ T-cell polarization by modulating GSK-3 activity in IFN--stimulated BMDCs, and that resveratol induces upregulation of TTS in CD8+ T-cells in the in vivo tumor environment. Taken together, resveratrol upregulates IFN--induced TTS expression in a GSK-3-dependent manner, and this TTS modulation is crucial for DC-mediated T-cell modulation.

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