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Kim S.-H.,Pusan National University | Choi Y.-J.,Headong Hospital | Kim K.-Y.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Yu S.-N.,Pusan National University | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic, acts as a highly selective potassium ionophore. It was reported to anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. In this study, salinomycin was examined on apoptosis and autophagy through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Apoptosis, autophagy, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ROS were analyzed using flow cytometry. Also, expressions of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were determined by western blotting. As a result, salinomycin triggered apoptosis of U2OS cells, which was accompanied by change of MMP and cleavage of caspases-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. And salinomycin increased the expression of autophagy-related protein and accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). Salinomycin-induced ROS production promotes both apoptosis and autophagy, as evidenced by the result that treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, attenuated both apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3 MA) enhanced the salinoymcin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that salinomycin-induced autophagy, as a survival mechanism, might be a potential strategy through ROS regulation in cancer therapy. © 2016. Source

Noh K.T.,Armed Forces Medical Research Institute | Cha G.S.,Pusan National University | Kim H.C.,Chung - Ang University | Lee J.H.,Chung - Ang University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food

Ellagic acid (EA) is a well-known phytochemical that modulates various cellular processes. It is present in a variety of foods, including grapes, strawberries, and nuts. However, the influence of EA on immunological responses is not well defined. Here, we investigated the effects of EA on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). EA was not cytotoxic to DCs. EA suppressed LPS-induced expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), but it did not suppress the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II in BMDCs. In particular, EA blocked LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. LPS-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-γ) was diminished by EA. We also confirmed that levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ were not influenced by EA in the presence of a JNK inhibitor. Taken together, these data demonstrate that EA regulates the immune response through the modulation of LPS-induced DC maturation. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. Source

Hong C.-W.,Armed Forces Medical Research Institute | Hong C.-W.,Hallym University | Kim Y.-M.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim Y.-M.,Sogang University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Radiation Research

The use of radiation therapy has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced vascular dysfunction, we employed two models. First, we examined the effect of X-ray irradiation on vasodilation in rabbit carotid arteries. Carotid arterial rings were irradiated with 8 or 16 Gy using in vivo and ex vivo methods. We measured the effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation after phenylephrine-induced contraction on the rings. In irradiated carotid arteries, vasodilation was significantly attenuated by both irradiation methods. The relaxation response was completely blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one, a potent inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Residual relaxation persisted after treatment with L-Nω-nitroarginine (L-NA), a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but disappeared following the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS). The relaxation response was also affected by tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor activity. In the second model, we investigated the biochemical events of nitrosative stress in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We measured iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs exposed to a dose of 4 Gy. The expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was greater in irradiated HUVECs than in untreated controls. Pretreatment with AG, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (a selective inhibitor of iNOS), and L-NA attenuated nitrosative stress. While a selective target of radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage was not definitely determined, these results suggest that NO generated from iNOS could contribute to vasorelaxation. These studies highlight a potential role of iNOS inhibitors in ameliorating radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Source

Lee S.J.,Konkuk University | Shin S.J.,Yonsei University | Lee M.H.,Konkuk University | Kang T.H.,Konkuk University | And 6 more authors.
BMB Reports

In this study, we showed that Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are representative antigen-presenting cells (APCs). M. abscessus MAB2560 stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, and IL-12p70] and reduce the endocytic capacity and maturation of DCs. Using TLR4-/- DCs, we found that MAB2560 mediated DC maturation via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MAB2560 also activated the MAPK signaling pathway, which was essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAB2560-treated DCs induced the transformation of naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which would be crucial for Th1 polarization of the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that MAB2560 could potentially regulate the host immune response to M. abscessus and may have critical implications for the manipulation of DC functions for developing DC-based immunotherapy. © 2014 by the The Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Source

Lee S.J.,Konkuk University | Noh K.T.,Armed Forces Medical Research Institute | Kang T.H.,Konkuk University | Han H.D.,Konkuk University | And 10 more authors.
BMB Reports

In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β) through Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling by directly binding with TLR4. MAP1305 activates the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAP1305-treated DCs transform naive T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus indicating a key role for this protein in the Th1 polarization of the resulting immune response. Taken together, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 is important for the regulation of innate immune response through DC-mediated proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. © 2014 by the The Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Source

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