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Rāwalpindi, Pakistan

Harcke H.T.,Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
Journal of special operations medicine : a peer reviewed journal for SOF medical professionals | Year: 2011

Intraosseous vascular infusion (IO) is a recognized alternative to peripheral intravenous infusion when access is inadequate. The sternum and proximal tibia are the preferred sites. A review of 98 cases at autopsy revealed successful sternal IO placement in 78 cases (80%). Assuming a worst case scenario for placement (pin mark and no tip in bone [17 cases] and tip present and not in the sternum [3 cases]), attempts were unsuccessful in 20 cases (20%). We draw no specific conclusions regarding sternal IO use, but hope that personnel placing these devices and those providing medical training can use the information. 2011. Source

Bernard S.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Murphey M.D.,Armed Forces Institute of Pathology | Flemming D.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Kransdorf M.J.,Mayo Clinic Jacksonville
Radiology | Year: 2010

Purpose: To validate a technique for reproducible measurement of the osteochondroma cartilage cap with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to reevaluate the correlation of the thickness of the cartilage cap with pathologic findings to improve noninvasive differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the need for informed consent. HIPAA compliance was maintained. After validation of the measurement technique, 101 pathologically confirmed osteochondromas were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographic data, histologic diagnosis, and chondrosarcoma grade were recorded. Two musculoskeletal radiologists used a standardized technique to independently measure the thicknesses of the cartilage caps on CT and MR images; these measurements were compared for interobserver agreement. Agreement between measurements with CT and MR imaging was also evaluated, as were the sensitivity and specificity of both modalities for differentiation of osteochondromas from chondrosarcomas. Results: Evaluated were 67 benign osteochondromas (from 49 male patients and 18 female patients; mean age, 23.4 years) and 34 secondary chondrosarcomas (from 27 male patients and seven female patients; mean age, 33.2 years). On the basis of the proposed measuring technique, there was 88% inter-observer measurement agreement with MR imaging (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%, 94%) and 93% with CT (95% CI: 84%, 98%). The median difference between measurements of cap thickness at CT and MR imaging was 0 cm (25th and 75th percentiles, -3 mm and 1 mm, respectively). With 2 cm used as a cutoff for distinguishing benign osteochondromas from chondrosarcomas, the sensitivities and specificities were 100% and 98% for MR imaging and 100% and 95% for CT, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed measuring technique allows accurate and reproducible measurement of cartilage cap thickness with both CT and MR imaging. Cap thickness of 2 cm or greater strongly indicated secondary chondrosarcomas. © RSNA, 2010. Source

Fowler C.B.,Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue archives and their associated diagnostic records represent an invaluable source of proteomic information on diseases where the patient outcomes are already known. Over the last few years, advances in methodology have made it possible to recover peptides from FFPE tissues that yield a reasonable representation of the proteins recovered from identical fresh or frozen specimens. These new methods, based largely upon heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques borrowed from immunohistochemistry, have developed sufficiently to allow at least a qualitative analysis of the proteome of FFPE archival tissues. This chapter describes the approaches for performing proteomic analysis on FFPE tissues by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Source

Khattak S.A.,Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2012

To determine the prevalence of various mutations in beta (beta) thalassaemia and its association with haematological parameters. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Haematology, Armed Forced Institute of Pathology (AFIP) from February 2009 to January 2010. A total of 515 carriers having beta thalassaemia mutations characterized by Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) were included in the study. Frequencies of different beta thalassaemia mutations were calculated. Mutations were analyzed for their haematological parameters which include total red blood cell count (TRBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and red cell distribution width (RDW). Frame shift (Fr) 8-9 was the most common mutation found in 183 (35.5%) of patients followed by intervening sequence 1-5 (IVSI-5) in 126 (24.5%) and Fr 41-42 in 76 (14.8%) while IVSII-1 was the least common mutation found in 1 patient. Fr 8-9 was also the commonest mutation in Punjabis and Pathans. Predominant mutation in other ethnic carriers was IVSI-5. Patients with Fr 8-9 mutation had the lowest mean MCV and MCH of 63.7fl and 19.1pg, of all the mutations. Patients with CAP+1 mutation had mean TRBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and RDW of 5.5 x 1012/L, 13.5g/dl, 78.0fl, 24.7pg and 41.9fl respectively. Fr 8-9 is the most common beta thalassaemia mutation with lowest red cell indices while CAP+1 mutation can present with normal red cell values therefore, a potential carrier should be screened for CAP+1 mutation by DNA analysis. Source

Cunningham R.E.,Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

This chapter provides an introduction to the use of fluorescent probes in flow cytometry. Sample preparation for the use of surface labeling with antibodies as well as for the use of nucleic acid probes is discussed. The utility of cell sorting is also discussed. Source

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