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Cotteaux-Lautard C.,University of Monastir | Leparc-goffart I.,IRBA Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute | Berenger J.M.,Aix - Marseille University | Plumet S.,IRBA Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute | Pages F.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire
Acta Tropica

This paper reports on an entomological survey performed over the period 2009-2011 in endemic focus of peri-urban TOSV in South of France located from 24 km east of Marseille. Sand flies were captured using CDC light traps set in sand fly resting places overnight, and temperature, relative humidity and wind were recorded to establish possible relations between meteorological factors and vector densities. The most common species, of 5,432 specimens collected and identified, was Phlebotomus perniciosus (74%), followed by Sergentomyia minuta (6%) and Phlebotomus ariasi (1%). Male flies were highly predominant for all Larroussius species instead of S. minuta which counted (85%) of females. The results shed light on the wide population's dynamic of P. perniciosus in France showing a diphasic seasonal trend with two abundance peaks at the beginning of July and late August, when a mean temperature is from 23.3 to 25.7 °C. Interestingly, these two peaks are corresponding to the peaks of occurrence of human TOSV cases. Among the 1724 females collected, 549 (32%) were blood-fed. Based on the results of blood meal analyses, P. perniciosus fed on large animal's diversity (man, chicken, rabbit, others mammalians, etc.), including bats that are the only species found naturally infected by TOSV. Results indicate that host choice was probably related to its availability than specific attractiveness. Data presented confirm that sand flies easily adapted to the periurban sites like, P. perniciosus may represent a public health concern for pathogen transmission in similar Mediterranean environments. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Moyen N.,Aix - Marseille University | Thiberville S.-D.,Aix - Marseille University | Pastorino B.,Aix - Marseille University | Nougairede A.,Aix - Marseille University | And 7 more authors.

Background: Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011. Methodology and Findings: We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2%) lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area). Amongst them, 37 (11.7%) were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay), of whom 36 (97.3%) had fever, 22 (66.7%) myalgia and 32 (86.5%) arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors), providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2%)) with sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (72.4%) values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%), but the positive predictive value (45%) indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion "fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza-MRS1) demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions/Significance: We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better understanding the environmental, microbiological and sociological determinants of emergence. © 2014 Moyen et al. Source

Piorkowski G.,Aix - Marseille University | Richard P.,Etablissement Francais du Sang Fort de France | Baronti C.,Aix - Marseille University | Gallian P.,Aix - Marseille University | And 3 more authors.
New Microbes and New Infections

Zika virus is an Aedes-borne Flavivirus causing fever, arthralgia, myalgia rash, associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome and suspected to induce microcephaly in the fetus. We report here the complete coding sequence of the first characterized Caribbean Zika virus strain, isolated from a patient from Martinique in December, 2015. © 2016 The Authors. Source

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