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Foongladda S.,Mahidol University | Inthawong D.,Mahidol University | Kositanont U.,Mahidol University | Gaywee J.,Armed Force Research Institute of Medical science
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

Flea and tick specimens (5-10 fleas or ticks) on dogs and cats from various sites in Bangkok were tested by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to detect DNA of bacteria Rickettsia (gltA and 17kDa genes), Anaplasmataceae (16S rRNA gene), and Bartonella (pap31 and its genes). We confirmed that Rickettsia sp. related to Rickettsia felis was detected in 66 of 98 (67.4%) flea specimens from dogs, whereas 8 Bartonella henselae and 2 Bartonella clarridgeiae were detected in 10 of 54 (18.5%) flea specimens from cats. Further, this work provides the first evidence of 10 Ehrlichia canis (3.3%), 7 Anaplasma platys (2.3%), and 2 Wolbachia spp. (0.66%) in 304 Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick specimens in Thailand. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Nanda K.,International Biomedical | Morrison C.S.,International Biomedical | Kwok C.,International Biomedical | Byamugisha J.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Contraception | Year: 2011

Background: We examined hormonal contraceptive (HC) discontinuation and factors associated with discontinuation among HIV-uninfected women and the effect of HIV diagnosis on subsequent contraceptive use. Study Design: We analyzed 4461 HIV-uninfected women from a prospective study of HC and HIV acquisition in Uganda, Zimbabwe and Thailand. Participants were ages 18-35 years, not pregnant, and using oral contraceptives (OCs) or injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for at least 3 months before enrollment (median duration of OC and DMPA use before enrollment was 11.7 and 8.9 months, respectively). We compared the probability of OC and DMPA discontinuation using survival analysis and factors related to discontinuation using Cox regression. We also analyzed contraceptive patterns among 194 women who became infected with HIV. Results: Median duration of use after study enrollment was 15.6 months for OCs and 18.5 months for DMPA. Continuation rates for both methods were highest in Thailand. Factors associated with OC discontinuation included, nausea, breast tenderness, condom use, and no sex. Factors associated with DMPA discontinuation included young age, breast tenderness, nausea, irregular bleeding, high-risk sexual behaviors, partner risk, condom use, and no sex. Following an HIV diagnosis, 135 (98.5%) of 137 hormonal users continued HC and 14 (25%) of 57 nonusers began using HC. Conclusions: Contraceptive continuation for OCs and DMPA was relatively high over 2 years. Young women, those reporting side effects, and those using condoms are more likely to discontinue and need ongoing contraceptive counseling. Many women receiving HIV-positive diagnoses desire effective contraception. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Phuphisut O.,Mahidol University | Maipanich W.,Mahidol University | Pubampen S.,Mahidol University | Yindee M.,Mahidol University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2015

The transmission of zoonoses by wildlife, including elephants, is a growing global concern. In this study, we screened for helminth infections among Asian wild elephants (Elephas maximus) of the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. Elephant faecal samples (45) were collected from the sanctuary grounds during January through November 2013 and assayed individually using the tetranucleotide microsatellite technique. Microscopic examination indicated a high prevalence of strongylids (93.0%) and low prevalences of trichurids (2.3%) and ascarids (2.3%). To identify the strongylid species, small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were amplified from copro-DNA and compared with sequences in GenBank. The generated SSU-rDNA sequences comprised five distinct haplotypes that were closely related to Oesophagostomum aculeatum. A phylogenetic analysis that incorporated related nematodes yielded a tree separated into two main clades, one containing our samples and human and domestic animal hookworms and the other consisting of Strongyloides. The present results indicate that O. aculeatum in local elephants is a potential source of helminthiasis in human and domestic animals in this wild-elephant irrupted area. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 Source

Trang N.V.,The National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Luan L.T.,Center for Research and Production of Vaccines and Biologicals | Kim-Anh L.T.,The National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Hau V.T.B.,The National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2012

Noroviruses (NoV) and sapoviruses (SaV) are recognized as important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In this study, the prevalence and genetic variability of NoV and SaV were determined in hospitalized children <5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 501 fecal specimens collected between November-2007 and October-2008, that previously had been tested for rotavirus (RV), were tested for NoV and SaV by realtime RT-PCR. Positive samples were genotyped by conventional RT-PCR followed by sequencing. GII NoV was detected in 180 (36%) and SaV in 7 (1.4%) of the samples. NoV was detected year-round ranging from 9.5% in April to 81.5% in September among RV negative samples. NoV GII.4 Minerva (2006b) was the dominant genotype (93%) with a few other genotypes detected including GII.3 (4.4%), GII.13 (1.7%), and GII.2 (0.6%) but no GI strains. Only GI and GII SaV strains were detected in this study. No difference in NoV prevalence between age groups was noted. Frequency of vomiting or fever was similar between children with NoV and RV infection, yet, NoV caused diarrhea with longer duration. In conclusion, NoV is the second most frequent cause of diarrhea in hospitalized children in North Vietnam. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Shakya G.,National Public Health Laboratory | Kim D.W.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | Kim D.W.,Hanyang University | Clemens J.D.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | And 10 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Cholera occurs in sporadic cases and outbreaks in Nepal each year. Vibrio cholerae O1 (n = 522) isolated during 2007-2010 from diarrheal patients at 10 different hospital laboratories in Nepal were characterized. Biochemical and serologic identifications showed that all the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, El Tor biotype. Except 72 isolates of Inaba serotype isolated in the year 2007, all the remaining isolates were of Ogawa serotype. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and furazolidone. Resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole were 21, 4, 16 and 90 % respectively. Seventy-seven of these isolates were selected for further characterization for ctxB gene and MLVA typing. Two different variants of classical type cholera toxin were observed. Ogawa strains from 2007 and 2010-Western Nepal outbreak harbored CTX-3 type cholera toxin, whereas Inaba serotypes in 2007 and the remaining Ogawa serotypes in 2008-2010 harbored CTX 3b-type toxin. MLVA analysis showed circulation of four different groups of altered V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. Two different profiles were seen among 2007 Inaba (9, 3, 6, x, x) and Ogawa (10, 7, 6, x, x) isolates. The MLVA profile of 2008 and 2009 Ogawa isolates were similar to those of Inaba strains of 2007. Isolates from 2010 also showed three different MLVA profiles; profile 9, 3, 6, x, x in 3 isolates, 11, 7, 6, x, x among 2010 Western Nepal outbreak strains and profile 8, 3, 6, x, x among isolates from Butwal and Kathmandu. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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