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Mariam S.H.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute AHRI | Mariam S.H.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the classic agents causing tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals respectively. Transmission of tuberculous bacteria to humans usually occurs by inhalation of aerosols containing droplets of tubercle bacilli or via consumption of contaminated foods and drinks, primarily milk. The practice of milk pooling, including from cows with TB of the udder, further exacerbates the situation by rendering the whole milk supply infective. The simultaneous presence of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Mycobacterium-contaminated milk is believed to confer protective effect when the milk is adequately fermented. This study assessed the effect of LAB on the viability of mycobacteria in inherently contaminated pool of raw milk during fermentation as a function of time. Findings. Growth was obtained in the pooled raw milk culture, and identified to be M. tuberculosis. This M. tuberculosis growth was undetectable in the milk culture by day 7 as assessed by plating serial dilutions of the milk culture for up to 14 days. Conclusions: Some LAB species appear to show inhibitory effect on tubercle bacilli. If proven by more rigorous, controlled experimental results regarding such effect, selected LAB (with proven safety and efficacy) may have potential applications as anti-mycobacterial agents. © 2014 Mariam; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Misganaw A.C.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute AHRI | Worku Y.A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Sexual violence is a major public health concern as well as human rights violation. Homeless women are far more likely to experience violence of all sorts than women in general. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and consequence of rape, and explore the reasons and factors associated with rape among street females in Bahir-Dar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods. This is a mixed method study which included: a survey of 395 street females age 15 - 49; key informant interview with 4 stakeholders; 5 case studies; one focus group of 10 street females and one focus group of 10 street males. Street females are those who spend most of their time on the street and who depend on the street for their life. Qualitative and quantitative data were assessed separately with thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Bivariate and Multivariate analysis were determined. Results: Life time prevalence of rape was 24.3% and the prevalence of rape in the last year was 11.4%. Factors like females "off" the street [OR (95% CI) =6.2 (3.0, 12.9)], being a prostitute [OR (95% CI) = 4.1 (1.5, 11.1)] and age 15-29 [OR (95% CI) =3.5 (1.1, 11.2)] were significantly associated with rape. Most, 93.8% of the rapes were not reported to legal bodies. None of the victims used condom during the rape event. Only, 4 (4.2%) of the victims used emergency contraceptive method following the rape event. Out of the total of 96 victims of rape, 13 (19.1%) and 9 (13.2%) experienced unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion respectively. Beside, 38 (41%) and 15 (22%) victims claimed genital injury and unusual vaginal discharge respectively. Psychological consequence like, hating others by 34 (35.8%), fear and concern for HIV/AIDS by 44 (46.6%), guilt feeling by 28 (29.4%) and loss of interest in sexual activity by 28 (29.4%) of victims were reported. Majority, 42.9% of victims attribute their victimization with sleeping in areas where there are many brothels. Being physically weak, long stay in street life, and sleeping around street males were reasons mentioned for rape by 11.9%, 29.7% and 15.4% of rape victims respectively. Conclusion: In general, there is a very high prevalence of rape exacting significant physical and psychological tolls in victims of the study. Therefore, timely and integrated actions of the various stakeholders working in this area are crucial to curtail this critical human rights violation. © 2013 Misganaw and Worku; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Pontiroli A.,University of Warwick | Khera T.T.,University of Warwick | Oakley B.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Mason S.,University of Warwick | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Environmental mycobacteria (EM) include species commonly found in various terrestrial and aquatic environments, encompassing animal and human pathogens in addition to saprophytes. Approximately 150 EM species can be separated into fast and slow growers based on sequence and copy number differences of their 16S rRNA genes. Cultivation methods are not appropriate for diversity studies; few studies have investigated EM diversity in soil despite their importance as potential reservoirs of pathogens and their hypothesized role in masking or blocking M. bovis BCG vaccine. Methods: We report here the development, optimization and validation of molecular assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene to assess diversity and prevalence of fast and slow growing EM in representative soils from semi tropical and temperate areas. New primer sets were designed also to target uniquely slow growing mycobacteria and used with PCR-DGGE, tag-encoded Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. Results: PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing provided a consensus of EM diversity; for example, a high abundance of pyrosequencing reads and DGGE bands corresponded to M. moriokaense, M. colombiense and M. riyadhense. As expected pyrosequencing provided more comprehensive information; additional prevalent species included M. chlorophenolicum, M. neglectum, M. gordonae, M. aemonae. Prevalence of the total Mycobacterium genus in the soil samples ranged from 2.3×107 to 2.7×108 gene targets g-1; slow growers prevalence from 2.9×105 to 1.2×107 cells g-1. Conclusions: This combined molecular approach enabled an unprecedented qualitative and quantitative assessment of EM across soil samples. Good concordance was found between methods and the bioinformatics analysis was validated by random resampling. Sequences from most pathogenic groups associated with slow growth were identified in extenso in all soils tested with a specific assay, allowing to unmask them from the Mycobacterium whole genus, in which, as minority members, they would have remained undetected. © 2013 Pontiroli et al. Source

Garedew L.,University of Gondar | Mihret A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Mihret A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute AHRI | Ameni G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes about 10% to 20% of all cases of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients and more than 50% of the cases in HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Little information is available on the clonal diversity of Mycobacterium species in Ethiopia from EPTB. Methods: This study was carried out on smear-negative EPTB patients to molecularly characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. A questionnaire, smear staining, culture, deletion typing, and spoligotyping were employed. Results: The proportional distribution of EPTB and isolates did not vary substantially (p > 0.05) amongst the socio-demographic parameters considered in the current investigation. Out of 98 fine needle aspirates processed for culture, 36.7% (36/98) were positive for mycobacterial growth. Further speciation of those culture-positive isolates showed that 88.9% were M. tuberculosis and the remaining could be non-tuberculous mycobacterial species. Spoligotyping revealed 16 clusters out of which 2 were new to the SITVIT database. The most dominant spoligotypes were SIT54, SIT53, and SIT149 in decreasing order. SIT54, SIT134, SIT173, SIT345, SIT357, SIT926, SIT91088, and SIT1580 were reported for the first time in Ethiopia. The family with the highest frequency identified was M. tuberculosis family T1, followed by family 33. Most of the strains belonged to Euro-American (61.4%) and Indo-Oceanic (36.3%) lineages. Conclusions: The present study shows the importance of M. tuberculosis as a major cause of EPTB in the study area. Moreover, the majority of isolates of M. tuberculosis were found in clusters, suggesting the possibility of the existence of recent transmission. This warrants strengthening of the control programs for EPTB in the study area. © 2013 Informa Healthcare. Source

Abebe M.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute AHRI | Doherty M.,Statens Serum Institute | Wassie L.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute AHRI | Demissie A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute AHRI | And 3 more authors.
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2012

TB remains a major public health problem despite all the efforts that have been made since it was declared a global emergency in 1993. Different strategies have been implemented to curb the spread of the epidemic. Early case detection and treatment is one of the pillars of the TB control program. In 1991, WHO set targets for increasing case detection and treatment success rates to 70% and 85% respectively. Although the target of treatment success rate has been achieved, the case detection rate remains far below target at currently less than 50%. It is high time that control programs move from simple passive to a more systematic active case finding in order to accelerate TB control. © Markos Abebe et al. Source

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