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Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Biressaw S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Abegaz W.E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Abebe M.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute | Taye W.A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Belay M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Background: The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has brought a remarkable reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity both in adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to ART is the key to the successful treatment of patients as well as containment of drug resistance. Studies based on caregivers' report have shown that adherence to ART among children is generally good. However, subjective methods such as caregivers' report are known to overestimate the level of adherence. This study determined the rate of adherence and its predictors using unannounced home-based pill count and compared the result with caregivers' report in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2011 and January 30, 2012. The study participants were 210 children on ART and their caregivers attending pediatric ART clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa University. Caregivers were interviewed at the ART clinic using a structured questionnaire. Then, unannounced home-based pill count was done 7 days after the interview. Results: Caregiver-reported adherence in the past 7 days prior to interview was 93.3%. Estimated adherence using unannounced home-based pill count was found, however, to be 34.8%. On multivariate logistic regression model, children with married [aOR = 7.85 (95% CI: 2.11,29.13)] and widowed/divorced [aOR = 7.14 (95% CI: 2.00,25.46)] caregivers, those who were not aware of their HIV sero-status [aOR = 2.35 (95% CI:1.09, 5.06)], and those with baseline WHO clinical stage III/IV [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.21, 8.40] were more likely to adhere to their ART treatment. On the other hand, children on d4T/3Tc/EFV combination [OR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.53)] were less likely to adhere to their treatment. Caregivers' forgetfulness and child refusal to take medication were reported as the major reasons for missing doses. Conclusion: The level of adherence based on unannounced home-based pill count was unacceptably low. Interventions are urgently needed to improve adherence to ART among children at TAH. Besides, a longitudinal study measuring adherence combined with clinical parameters (viral load and CD4 count) is needed to identify a simple and reliable measure of adherence in the study area. © 2013 Biressaw et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mihret A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
Virulence | Year: 2012

The immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is multifactorial, involving a network of innate and adaptive immune responses. Characterization of the immune response, a clear understanding of the dynamics and interplay of different arms of the immune response are critical to allow the development of better tools for combating tuberculosis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the key cells in bridging innate and adaptive immune response through their significant role in capturing, processing and presenting antigens. The outcome of interaction of M. tuberculosis with DCs is not fully understood and the available reports are contradictory were some findings reported that DCs strengthen the cellular immune response against mycobacterium infection whereas others reported M. tuberculosis impairs the function of DCs were infected DCs are poor stimulators of M. tuberculosis Agspecific CD4 T cells. Other studies showed that the outcome depends on M. tuberculosis strain type and type of receptor on DCs during recognition. In this review I shall highlight the recent findings in the outcome of interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with DCs. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.


Tadesse T.,University of Gondar | Demissie M.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | Berhane Y.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | Kebede Y.,University of Gondar | Abebe M.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Timely tuberculosis treatment initiation and compliance are the two key factors for a successful tuberculosis control program. However, studies to understand patents' perspective on tuberculosis treatment initiation and compliance have been limited in Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to attempt to do that in rural Ethiopia. Methods. This qualitative, phenomenological study conducted 26 in-depth interviews with tuberculosis patients. A thematic content analysis of the interviews was performed using the Open Code software version 3.1. Results: We found that lack of geographic access to health facilities, financial burdens, use of traditional healing systems and delay in diagnosis by health care providers were the main reasons for not initiating tuberculosis treatment timely. Lack of geographic access to health facilities, financial burdens, quality of health services provided and social support were also identified as the main reasons for failing to fully comply with tuberculosis treatments. Conclusions: This study highlighted complexities surrounding tuberculosis control efforts in Dabat District. Challenges of geographic access to health care facilities and financial burdens were factors that most influenced timely tuberculosis treatment initiation and compliance. Decentralization of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services to peripheral health facilities, including health posts is of vital importance to make progress toward achieving tuberculosis control targets in Ethiopia. © 2013 Tadesse et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tadesse T.,University of Gondar | Demissie M.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | Berhane Y.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | Kebede Y.,University of Gondar | Abebe M.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection rate remains low in Ethiopia. One of the underlying reasons is the emphasis on passive case finding strategy which may seriously underestimate the burden of the disease. Estimating the prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB through active case finding at population level can help assessing the degree to which passive case detection is successful. Methods and findings: This is population based cross-sectional study. The study population was all individuals aged ≥14 years. Interviews using a uniform questionnaire were done initially to identify individuals with chronic cough (≥15 days) and the two sputum (spot and morning) samples were gathered for standard smear microscopy. A total of 23,590 individuals aged ≥14 years were interviewed and 984 had a chronic cough for ≥15 days. Of 831 individuals who provided two sputum samples for acid fast bacilli (AFB), 41 had positive smears. A total of 22 smear-positive TB cases detected through passive case finding were on anti-TB treatment. The prevalence of new smear-positive TB was 174 per 100,000 in persons aged ≥14 years (95% CI: 121-227).The ratio of active to passive case finding was 2:1. Higher rates of smear-positivity were observed among females [AOR: 3.28, 95% CI (1.54-6.77)], and in the age group ≥45 years [AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.12-4.59). Conclusions: The study revealed that about two-thirds of patients with active TB remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. This may indicate the need for strengthening case detection at the community level. Furthermore, the high burden of TB among females and in the age group ≥45 years warrants appropriate measures to control the disease. © 2011 Tadesse et al.


Mihret A.,Armauer Hansen Research Institute
Virulence | Year: 2012

The immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is multifactorial, involving a network of innate and adaptive immune responses. Characterization of the immune response, a clear understanding of the dynamics and interplay of different arms of the immune response are critical to allow the development of better tools for combating tuberculosis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the key cells in bridging innate and adaptive immune response through their significant role in capturing, processing and presenting antigens. The outcome of interaction of M. tuberculosis with DCs is not fully understood and the available reports are contradictory were some findings reported that DCs strengthen the cellular immune response against mycobacterium infection whereas others reported M. tuberculosis impairs the function of DCs were infected DCs are poor stimulators of M. tuberculosis Ag-specific CD4 T cells. Other studies showed that the outcome depends on M. tuberculosis strain type and type of receptor on DCs during recognition. In this review I shall highlight the recent findings in the outcome of interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with DCs.

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