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Garcia M.,University of Florida | Greco L.F.,University of Florida | Favoreto M.G.,University of Florida | Marsola R.S.,University of Florida | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×103/μL), lowered plasma concentrations of acid-soluble protein (78.8 vs. 91.3mg/L) and blood platelets (736 vs. 822×103/μL), and increased production of IFN-γ by peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 30d of age (48.1 vs. 25.6pg/mL), possibly indicating an earlier development of the immune system. Partial replacement of coconut oil with porcine lard in MR improved calf performance and some aspects of immunity. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Garcia M.,University of Florida | Greco L.F.,University of Florida | Favoreto M.G.,University of Florida | Marsola R.S.,University of Florida | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The objectives were to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (FA) to nulliparous and parous Holstein animals (n. = 78) during late gestation on FA profile of colostrum and plasma of newborn calves and on production and absorption of IgG. The saturated FA supplement (SAT) was enriched in C18:0 and the unsaturated FA supplement (ESS) was enriched in the essential FA C18:2n-6. Fatty acids were supplemented at 1.7% of dietary dry matter to low-FA diets (1.9% of dietary dry matter) during the last 8. wk of gestation. Calves were fed 4. L of colostrum within 2. h of birth from their own dam or from a dam fed the same treatment. Feeding fat did not affect prepartum dry matter intake, body weight change, or gestation length. Parous but not nulliparous dams tended to give birth to heavier calves if fed fat prepartum. Parous dams were less able to synthesize essential FA derivatives, as evidenced by lower desaturase indices, compared with nulliparous dams, suggesting a greater need for essential FA supplementation. The FA profile of colostrum was modified to a greater degree by prepartum fat feeding than was that of neonatal calf plasma. The placental transfer and synthesis of elongated n-3 FA (C20:5, C22:5, and C22:6) were reduced, whereas the n-6 FA (C18:2, C18:3, and C20:3) were increased in plasma of calves born from dams fed ESS rather than SAT. Supplementing unsaturated FA prepartum resulted in elevated concentrations of trans isomers of unsaturated monoene and diene FA, as well as C18:2n-6 in colostrum. Serum concentrations of IgG tended to be increased in calves born from dams fed fat compared with those not fed fat, and prepartum feeding of SAT tended to improve circulating concentrations of IgG in newborn calves above the feeding of ESS. Apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was improved in calves born from dams fed fat, and SAT supplementation appeared more effective than supplementation with ESS. Feeding SAT prepartum may be of greater benefit based upon greater circulating IgG concentrations of calves after colostrum feeding. Feeding moderate amounts of saturated or unsaturated long-chain FA during the last 8. wk of gestation changed the FA profile of colostrum and plasma of neonates to reflect that of the supplements. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source


DeGroot M.A.,Oregon State University | Block E.,Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition | French P.D.,Oregon State University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The 4 diets used prepartum were (1) control [DCAD +20 mEq/100. g of dry matter (DM)], (2) Bio-Chlor (DCAD -12 mEq/100. g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ), (3) Fermenten (DCAD -10 mEq/100. g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), and (4) salts (DCAD -10 mEq/100. g of DM). Urine pH was lower for cows that consumed an anionic diet prepartum compared with control. Prepartum diet had no effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) of multiparous or primiparous cows. Postpartum DMI and milk yield for multiparous cows fed anionic diets prepartum were greater compared with those fed the control diet. Postpartum DMI and milk yield of primiparous cows were similar for prepartum diets. Feeding prepartum anionic diets did not affect plasma Ca at or near calving. However, cows fed anionic diets began their decline in plasma Ca later than control cows. Postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were lower for primiparous cows fed prepartum anionic diets compared with those fed the control diet. Prepartum and postpartum plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by prepartum diet for all cows. Liver triglyceride differed for parity by day. Parities were similar at 21 d prepartum, but at 0 d and 21 d postpartum, levels were greater for multiparous cows. Results indicate that decreasing the DCAD of the diet during the prepartum period can increase postpartum DMI and milk production of multiparous cows without negatively affecting performance of primiparous cows. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Mullins C.R.,Kansas State University | Weber D.,Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition | Block E.,Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition | Smith J.F.,Kansas State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Primiparous (n. = 33) and multiparous (n. = 63) lactating Holstein cows (186. ±. 51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3. d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6. ±. 0.35. kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1. ±. 0.46. kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1. g/d for lysine; -1. g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8. g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9. g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30. g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4. g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy-corrected milk yield. Despite the negative lysine balance and low lysine-to-methionine ratio predicted by the National Research Council model, results provided no evidence of a lysine deficiency in the control diet. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Rezac D.J.,Kansas State University | Block E.,Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition | Weber D.,Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition | Brouk M.J.,Kansas State University | Bradford B.J.,Kansas State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance or both. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

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