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Little Rock, AR, United States

Berlinski A.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Berlinski A.,Arkansas Childrens Hospital Research Institute
Respiratory Care | Year: 2013

Background: Nebulized therapy is commonly used in spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients, despite a lack of recommended devices and techniques. I compared albuterol dose delivered to a model of spontaneously breathing children with tracheostomy, using different nebulizers, tracheostomy tube sizes, inhalation techniques, and breathing patterns. Methods: A tracheostomy model was connected in series to a breathing simulator, with a filter interposed. I simulated the breathing patterns of a 16-month-old child and 12-year-old child, and tested tracheostomy tubes with internal diameters of 3.5 mm and 5.5 mm. Albuterol nebulizer solution (2.5 mg/3 mL) was used. A breath-enhanced nebulizer (Pari LC Plus), a breath-actuated nebulizer (AeroEclipse), and a nebulizer that continuously delivers aerosol (Up-Draft II Opti-Neb) were operated for 5 min at 6 L/min with wall air. The Up-Draft II was tested with T-piece and mask interfaces, with an extension tube, and with and without assisted breathing (every breath and every other breath). The amount of albuterol delivered was analyzed via spectrophotometry. Particle size distribution was measured with a cascade impactor. Results: The Pari LC Plus was more efficient than the Up-Draft II or AeroEclipse. Assisted breathing with the Up-Draft II with extension increased albuterol delivery with every other breath (second best device/configuration), being superior to every breath technique. Adding an extension tube increased delivered albuterol. T-piece was more efficient than mask. Breathing patterns with larger tidal volume increased albuterol delivery. Tracheostomy size had less impact on drug delivery. Mass median aerodynamic diameter decreased by 48-74% when passing through the tracheostomy tubes, and 0.8% of the nominal dose was deposited in the tracheostomy tube. Conclusions: Albuterol delivery in a model of spontaneously breathing children with tracheostomy is influenced by type of device and configuration, use of assisted breathing, breathing pattern, and tracheostomy tube size. Mass median aerodynamic diameter significantly decreases during passage through a tracheostomy tube. © 2013 Daedalus Enterprises. Source

Frye R.E.,Arkansas Childrens Hospital Research Institute
Translational psychiatry | Year: 2013

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with mitochondrial disease (MD). Interestingly, most individuals with ASD and MD do not have a specific genetic mutation to explain the MD, raising the possibility of that MD may be acquired, at least in a subgroup of children with ASD. Acquired MD has been demonstrated in a rodent ASD model in which propionic acid (PPA), an enteric bacterial fermentation product of ASD-associated gut bacteria, is infused intracerebroventricularly. This animal model shows validity as it demonstrates many behavioral, metabolic, neuropathologic and neurophysiologic abnormalities associated with ASD. This animal model also demonstrates a unique pattern of elevations in short-chain and long-chain acyl-carnitines suggesting abnormalities in fatty-acid metabolism. To determine if the same pattern of biomarkers of abnormal fatty-acid metabolism are present in children with ASD, the laboratory results from a large cohort of children with ASD (n=213) who underwent screening for metabolic disorders, including mitochondrial and fatty-acid oxidation disorders, in a medically based autism clinic were reviewed. Acyl-carnitine panels were determined to be abnormal if three or more individual acyl-carnitine species were abnormal in the panel and these abnormalities were verified by repeated testing. Overall, 17% of individuals with ASD demonstrated consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Next, it was determined if specific acyl-carnitine species were consistently elevated across the individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Significant elevations in short-chain and long-chain, but not medium-chain, acyl-carnitines were found in the ASD individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels-a pattern consistent with the PPA rodent ASD model. Examination of electron transport chain function in muscle and fibroblast culture, histological and electron microscopy examination of muscle and other biomarkers of mitochondrial metabolism revealed a pattern consistent with the notion that PPA could be interfering with mitochondrial metabolism at the level of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (TCAC). The function of the fatty-acid oxidation pathway in fibroblast cultures and biomarkers for abnormalities in non-mitochondrial fatty-acid metabolism were not consistently abnormal across the subgroup of ASD children, consistent with the notion that the abnormalities in fatty-acid metabolism found in this subgroup of children with ASD were secondary to TCAC abnormalities. Glutathione metabolism was abnormal in the subset of ASD individuals with consistent acyl-carnitine panel abnormalities in a pattern similar to glutathione abnormalities found in the PPA rodent model of ASD. These data suggest that there are similar pathological processes between a subset of ASD children and an animal model of ASD with acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. Future studies need to identify additional parallels between the PPA rodent model of ASD and this subset of ASD individuals with this unique pattern of acyl-carnitine abnormalities. A better understanding of this animal model and subset of children with ASD should lead to better insight in mechanisms behind environmentally induced ASD pathophysiology and should provide guidance for developing preventive and symptomatic treatments. Source

Rank R.G.,Arkansas Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Whittum-Hudson J.A.,Wayne State University
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

In all animal models for chlamydial infection, there is strong evidence for immunity to reinfection; however, immunity is only complete (ie, preventing infection) in the short term. In the long term, animals are only partially immune (ie, they can be reinfected, but infections are usually abbreviated and less intense than the primary infection). This review will target the mechanisms responsible for long-term versus short-term immunity and explore the roles of various components of the host response in immunity to chlamydial genital infection. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Frye R.E.,Arkansas Childrens Hospital Research Institute
Journal of Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2012

The recent scientific literature has documented an association between autism and mitochondrial dysfunction, yet the majority of reported cases of individuals with autism and mitochondrial disease have not reported a specific genetic defect to explain the cause of the mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we report two boys with regressive-type autism with similar biochemical, electron microscopy and electron transport chain abnormalities consistent with a mitochondrial disorder. Both boys manifested rare mutations in evolutionarily conserved regions of the cytochrome b gene, a gene that codes for an important component of complex III - one of the essential electron transport chain complexes. Only one of these mutations has been previously reported, making these mutations novel. Electron transport chain studies in two boys within this report are consistent with dysfunction of the electron transport chain beyond a complex III defect, consistent with other reports describing the effects of cytochrome b gene mutations. This report expands the knowledge of the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with autism. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Winchell C.G.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Graham J.G.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Kurten R.C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Kurten R.C.,Arkansas Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Voth D.E.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2014

Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes human Q fever, a flu-like disease that can progress to chronic, life-threatening endocarditis. In humans, C. burnetii infects alveolar macrophages and promotes phagosomal fusion with autophagosomes and lysosomes, establishing a unique parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in which to replicate. The pathogen uses a Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS) to deliver effector proteins to the host cytoplasm, where they alter cellular processes to benefit the pathogen. The T4SS is required for PV expansion and prevention of apoptosis, but little else is known about the role of the system during intracellular growth. Recent reports suggest that C. burnetii actively recruits autophagosomes to the PV to deliver nutrients to the pathogen and provide membrane for the expanding vacuole. In this study, we examined the role of the T4SS in mediating PV interactions with autophagosomes. We found that the autophagy-related proteins LC3 and p62 localized to wild-type PV but not to T4SS mutant organism-containing phagosomes in human macrophage-like cells, primary human alveolar macrophages, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. However, while lipidated LC3 levels were elevated regardless of T4SS activity, no p62 turnover was observed during C. burnetii growth in macrophages, suggesting that the pathogen recruits preformed autophagosomes. When the T4SS was activated 24 h after infection, autophagosome recruitment ensued, indicating that autophagosome interactions are dispensable for initial PV maturation to a phagolysosome-like compartment but are involved in vacuole expansion. Together, these results demonstrate that C. burnetii actively directs PV-autophagosome interactions by using the Dot/Icm T4SS. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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