Arthur C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences |
Arthur C.,Uams Arkansas Childrens Hospital |
Tang X.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences |
Romero J.R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences |
And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Cardiology | Year: 2015
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can present as bacteremia, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, soft tissue and wound infections, bone and joint infections, meningitis, and endocarditis especially in immunosuppressed patients and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence and impact of S. maltophilia in young children with heart disease are poorly defined. A single center retrospective observational study was conducted in infants <180 days of age with positive S. maltophilia cultures over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence for S. maltophilia infection was 0.8 % (n = 32/3656). Among 32 identified infants, there were 47 episodes of S. maltophilia infection 66 % of infants had prior exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. 97 % of positive isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 91 % to levofloxacin as well as ticarcillin/clavulanate. Ventilator-free days and absolute lymphocyte count prior to acquiring infection were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors. 100 % of survivors had clearance of positive cultures compared to 50 % in non-survivors (p < 0.05). The crude all-cause mortality rate was 37.5 %. All non-survivors had increased length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation and had delayed clearance of infection and required longer duration of treatment. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Sanders Jr. R.C.,UAMS Arkansas Childrens Hospital |
Giuliano Jr. J.S.,Yale University |
Sullivan J.E.,University of Louisville |
Brown III C.A.,Harvard University |
And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013
Background: Tracheal intubation is an important intervention to stabilize critically ill and injured children. Provider training level has been associated with procedural safety and outcomes in the neonatal intensive care settings. We hypothesized that tracheal intubation success and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events are correlated with provider training level in the PICU. Methods: A prospective multicenter observational cohort study was performed across 15 PICUs to evaluate tracheal intubation between July 2010 to December 2011. All data were collected by using a standard National Emergency Airway Registry for Children reporting system endorsed as a Quality Improvement project of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigator network. Outcome measures included first attempt success, overall success, and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. Results: Reported were 1265 primary oral intubation encounters by pediatric providers. First and overall attempt success were residents (37%, 51%), fellows (70%, 89%), and attending physicians (72%, 94%). After adjustment for relevant patient factors, fellow provider was associated with a higher rate of first attempt success (odds ratio [OR], 4.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.24-5.68) and overall success (OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 6.56-13.1) compared with residents. Fellow (versus resident) as first airway provider was associated with fewer tracheal intubation associated events (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31-0.57). Conclusions: Across a broad spectrum of PICUs, resident provider tracheal intubation success is low and adverse associated events are high, compared with fellows. More intensive pediatric resident procedural training is necessary before "live" tracheal intubations in the intensive care setting. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.