Arkansas City, AR, United States
Arkansas City, AR, United States

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Alex Daneshmand K.,Lee Memorial Hospital | Zaritsky A.L.,Childrens Hospital Of The Kings Daughters | Lamb M.A.,University of Florida | LeVine A.M.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of N-Terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP), N-Terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (N-ANP) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) over time and their relationship to clinical indicators in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis. Prospective crossover clinical investigation. Hospitalized children in a university-affiliated hospital. Twenty-seven children (birth to 24 mo) with first episode of bronchiolitis and 34 age-matched healthy controls. Daily blood samples up to five consecutive days were obtained for N-BNP, N-ANP and ADH in the bronchiolitis group and on the initial blood draw in the control group. Daily total fluid intake, net fluid balance and clinical bronchiolitis severity levels were recorded. N-BNP and N-ANP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ADH levels were measured by a double antibody technique. The mean age (months ± SD) in the bronchiolitis group was 4.2 ± 5.9 mo and 12.0 ± 6.1 mo in the control group; 51.9% of bronchiolitis patients were positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In patients with bronchiolitis on admission, plasma N-BNP measurements (mean ± SD) were elevated (996.0 ± 570.2 fmol/mL) compared to controls (552.7 ± 264.7 fmol/mL P < 0.005). Serum N-ANP levels were also initially elevated (3,889 ± 1,769.7 fmol/mL) compared to controls (2,173 ± 912 fmol/mL P < 0.005). The serum levels of N-BNP and N-ANP remained significantly elevated from day 2 through day 5. Similarly, ADH levels were significantly higher on admission in the bronchiolitis group (10 ± 7.49 pg/mL) vs. the control group (5.8 ± 5.5 pg/mL P < 0.05), but quickly decreased from day 2 through day 5. N-BNP, N-ANP and ADH concentrations were elevated in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis at admission. Based on our observation, judicious fluid management is indicated in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors.

Arthur C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Arthur C.,Uams Arkansas Childrens Hospital | Tang X.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Romero J.R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Cardiology | Year: 2015

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can present as bacteremia, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, soft tissue and wound infections, bone and joint infections, meningitis, and endocarditis especially in immunosuppressed patients and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence and impact of S. maltophilia in young children with heart disease are poorly defined. A single center retrospective observational study was conducted in infants <180 days of age with positive S. maltophilia cultures over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence for S. maltophilia infection was 0.8 % (n = 32/3656). Among 32 identified infants, there were 47 episodes of S. maltophilia infection 66 % of infants had prior exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. 97 % of positive isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 91 % to levofloxacin as well as ticarcillin/clavulanate. Ventilator-free days and absolute lymphocyte count prior to acquiring infection were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors. 100 % of survivors had clearance of positive cultures compared to 50 % in non-survivors (p < 0.05). The crude all-cause mortality rate was 37.5 %. All non-survivors had increased length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation and had delayed clearance of infection and required longer duration of treatment. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Sanders Jr. R.C.,UAMS Arkansas Childrens Hospital | Giuliano Jr. J.S.,Yale University | Sullivan J.E.,University of Louisville | Brown III C.A.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Background: Tracheal intubation is an important intervention to stabilize critically ill and injured children. Provider training level has been associated with procedural safety and outcomes in the neonatal intensive care settings. We hypothesized that tracheal intubation success and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events are correlated with provider training level in the PICU. Methods: A prospective multicenter observational cohort study was performed across 15 PICUs to evaluate tracheal intubation between July 2010 to December 2011. All data were collected by using a standard National Emergency Airway Registry for Children reporting system endorsed as a Quality Improvement project of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigator network. Outcome measures included first attempt success, overall success, and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. Results: Reported were 1265 primary oral intubation encounters by pediatric providers. First and overall attempt success were residents (37%, 51%), fellows (70%, 89%), and attending physicians (72%, 94%). After adjustment for relevant patient factors, fellow provider was associated with a higher rate of first attempt success (odds ratio [OR], 4.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.24-5.68) and overall success (OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 6.56-13.1) compared with residents. Fellow (versus resident) as first airway provider was associated with fewer tracheal intubation associated events (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31-0.57). Conclusions: Across a broad spectrum of PICUs, resident provider tracheal intubation success is low and adverse associated events are high, compared with fellows. More intensive pediatric resident procedural training is necessary before "live" tracheal intubations in the intensive care setting. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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