Tempe, AZ, United States
Tempe, AZ, United States

Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university located on five campuses across the Phoenix, Arizona, Metropolitan Area. A sixth campus located in northwestern Arizona is known as the ASU Colleges at Lake Havasu City.ASU is the largest public university by enrollment in the United States. Founded in 1885 as the Territorial Normal School at Tempe, the school underwent a series of changes in name and curriculum. In 1945 it was placed under the direction of the Arizona Board of Regents and renamed Arizona State College. A 1958 statewide ballot measure gave the university its present name. ASU was classified as a Research I institute in 1994; thus, making it one of the newest major research universities in the nation.ASU is classified as a research university with very high research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Since 2005 ASU has been ranked among the top research universities, public and private, in the U.S. based on research output, innovation, development, research expenditures, number of awarded patents and awarded research grant proposals. The Center for Measuring University Performance currently ranks ASU 31st among top U.S. public research universities.ASU's charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the "New American University" model created by current ASU President Michael Crow. It defines ASU as “a comprehensive public research university, measured not by whom we exclude, but rather by whom we include and how they succeed; advancing research and discovery of public value; and assuming fundamental responsibility for the economic, social, cultural and overall health of the communities it serves.”ASU awards bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees through 16 colleges and schools across all of its campuses: the original Tempe campus, the West campus in northwest Phoenix, the Polytechnic campus in eastern Mesa, the Downtown Phoenix campus, The Mayo Clinic/ASU Medical School in Scottsdale, and the Colleges at Lake Havasu City. ASU’s Online campus offers 41 undergraduate degrees, 37 graduate degrees and 14 graduate or undergraduate certificates which together have earned ASU a top 10 ranking for Best Online Programs.Students will compete in 24 varsity sports beginning in 2016. In conjunction with the transition of the men's ACHA club hockey team to Division I of the NCAA, the 24th varsity sport will be an NCAA women’s team: Rowing is among the favored possibilities. The Arizona State Sun Devils are members of the Pacific-12 Conference and have won 23 NCAA championships. Along with multiple athletic clubs and recreational facilities, ASU is home to more than 1,100 registered student organizations, reflecting the diversity of the student body. To keep pace with the growth of the student population, the university is continuously renovating and expanding infrastructure. The demand for new academic halls, athletic facilities, student recreation centers, and residential halls is being addressed with donor contributions and public-private investments. ASU's residential halls accommodate one of the largest residential populations in the nation. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: GRANT OPP FOR ACAD LIA W/INDUS | Award Amount: 215.81K | Year: 2013

GOALI: Intelligent Networked Solar Panel Array Management This three year GOALI proposal addresses several new signal processing, power, modeling, and control methods for optimizing photovoltaic (PV) arrays and inverters through Smart Monitoring Devices (SMD). The objectives for this GOALI project have been designed jointly by our faculty and industry partners and include: a) studying how the individual PV monitoring devices can improve solar panel array operation and efficiency, b) examining communication and networking methodologies for data flow through the system, and c) investigating optimization methodologies for the overall improvement of PV array and inverter performance. Based on these objectives our short term goals are: a) to develop intelligent, interactive PV monitoring technologies, b) to develop switching strategies for PV modules, c) to optimize PV array performance, d) to provide fault tolerant capabilities, e) to establish communications and networking among SMDs, servers and inverters, f) to provide anti-shading strategies and reduce mismatch, and g) to establish these innovations along with a tech transfer and IP roadmap for the GOALI project. The long term goal is to develop smart PV technologies that will help define new standards and protocols for PV array communication and control.

Intellectual Merit: Scientific problems that the proposal addresses revolve around information extraction and processing from PV arrays and inverter units that are intended for utility scale power production. The PV data and information processing algorithms derived for these applications will impact many areas in solar array power production and distribution. More specifically they will result in designing and deploying effective and robust PV arrays that operate in near optimum conditions and are robust to faults, noise and weather changes.

Broader Impact: The proposed work will advance the development of PV and inverter technologies. Our research will lead to inexpensive, smart, and robust PV units for utility scale applications. As a whole, our research will reduce the cost of energy by optimizing PV array and inverter operation. In the proposal, we describe a process to create compelling realizations of mobile iJDSP for dissemination and outreach of this PV monitoring research.


This disclosure includes systems and methods for extracting hydrocarbons from a geologic structure. Some systems use or include a well-bore that extends at least partially through the geologic structure, a first electrode disposed within the wellbore, an ionically conductive medium in fluid communication with the first electrode, a second electrode in electrical communication with the first electrode, and a power source configured to establish an electrical current between the first and second electrodes to cause an electrochemical reaction. Some systems are configured to facilitate extraction of hydrocarbons from a geologic structure.


Patent
Dignity Health and Arizona State University | Date: 2015-04-27

Systems and methods for detecting onset, presence, and progression of particular states, including intoxication, include observing eye movements of a subject and correlating the observed movements to known baseline neurophysiological indicators of intoxication. A detection system may record eye movement data from a user, compare the eye movement data to a data model comprising threshold eye movement data samples, and from the comparison make a determination whether or not intoxication or impairment is present. The detection system may alert the user to take corrective action if onset or presence of a dangerous condition is detected. The eye movements detected include saccadic and intersaccadic parameters such as intersaccadic drift velocity. Measurements may be collected in situ with a field testing device. An interactive application may be provided on a user device to provoke the desired eye movements during recording.


The present invention provides a temperature-responsive dual-gelling hydrogel comprising a plurality of hydrogel polymers and a polymer cross-linking moiety, wherein the LCST of the hydrogel polymers is less than 37 C., and the polymer cross-linking moiety is capable of chemically cross linking to the hydrogel polymers to form a polymer matrix.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-08-31

A method for creating a tumor model includes encapsulating cancer cells in a first solution, disposing the first solution on a spacer, cross-linking the first solution and creating one or more high stiffness constructs, disposing a second solution around the one or more high stiffness constructs, and cross-linking the second solution and creating a low stiffness matrix surrounding the one or more low stiffness constructs.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-09-13

Methods and compositions for replication of threose nucleic acids (TNAs) are described. The described methods include a method for transcribing a DNA template into a TNA, and a method for reverse transcribing a threose nucleic acid into a cDNA.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-08-02

A system for providing neurostimulation includes an external device (external exciter) and an implanted device. The external exciter includes an energy source which inductively powers the implanted device. Examples of such external exciters include devices having at least one of: ultrasonic transducers, Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters, and solar cells. The implanted device includes circuitry that limits its maximum energy output to a predetermined saturation threshold such that excess stimulation from the external exciter does not raise the output of the implanted device beyond the saturation threshold. The output signal of the external exciter is then pulse-width modulated in order to produce a desired amount of output stimulation from the implanted device to stimulate the bioelectrically excitable tissue at a desired level.


We have identified a suite of genes in a limited number of human colonic tissue samples with expression patterns that correlate with whether an individual is experiencing symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) (FIG. 2). Interestingly, in the efforts to screen for genes that might be used as biomarkers for IBS, it was found that no single gene could be used for this purpose. Instead, when examining the entire dataset, there exist signature gene expression patterns (e.g., fingerprints or biosignatures) of IBS that have use as a diagnostic tool for IBS.


Tetradentate and octahedral metal complexes suitable for use as phosphorescent or delayed fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters in display and lighting applications.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2015-04-22

We constructed S. Gallinarum strains deleted for the global regulatory gene fur (FIG. 1) and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was a virulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T cell responses. The Afur pmi and fur ansB double mutants were attenuated, but not protective when delivered orally to chicks. However, a pmi fur strain was substantially immunogenic when administrated intramuscularly. Altogether our results show that the fur gene is essential for virulence of S. Gallinarum and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid.


An implicit motor control training system for functional prosthetic device training is provided as a novel approach to rehabilitation and functional prosthetic controls by taking advantage of a humans natural motor learning behavior while interacting with electromyography.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-07-29

A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) based on the detection and quantification of the movement of single bacterial cells with a plasmonic imaging and tracking (PIT) technology. The PIT-based AST detects changes in the metabolic activity of the bacterial cells long before cell replication, and allows rapid AST for both cultivable and non-cultivable strains. PIT tracks 3D movement with sub-nanometer resolution and millisecond temporal resolution. PIT also allows simultaneous measurement of the binding kinetic constants of antibiotics and bacterial metabolic state after the introduction of antibiotics.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2015-03-16

Provided herein are methods for the rapid detection of HPV types, such as HPV 16- and HPV18-specific antibodies, in patient samples that contain antibodies. For example, patients with head and neck cancers have detectable antibodies to multiple early genes derived from HPV. These antibodies also are useful as biomarkers for HPV-associated malignancies and premalignant states, for diagnosis and prognosis, and for methods of assessing treatment and cancer-recurrence prediction.


A sensing device is provided that includes a tunnel junction created by forming a hole in a layered tunnel junction (for example). A chemically, well-defined surface may be formed by coupling affinity reagents to the electrodes, which, by these means, the surface may be configured to be selective for a particular analyte.


A method and system for analysis of protein interaction kinetics in microarray or whole-cell based formats includes positioning a sensor chip on a prism. The sensor chip is spotted with a plurality of target molecules. A movable printer head deposits a plurality of analyte droplets on predefined regions of the sensor chip surface. A light source transmits light through the prism to excite surface plasmon resonance on the sensor chip surface, whereby the plurality of target molecules bound to the upper surface are changing the SPR resonance angle and therefore the intensity of the reflected beam. A detector receives reflected light transmitted through the prism from the bottom surface. Signals from the detector are received and processed into kinetic data and microarray labeled data to determine molecular interactions and binding kinetic properties for the plurality of analyte droplets.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2015-05-14

Nucleic acid-guided ordered protein assembly (NOPA) arrays and methods for their generation and related applications are disclosed herein.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-08-29

Embodiments of the invention provide a method of forming a metal matrix composite including introducing a plurality of nanoparticles into a flow of metal material, and mixing of at least a partial portion of the flow of metal material with at least some of the plurality of nanoparticles to form a mixture of the metal material and at least some of the nanoparticles. The method further includes forming a metal matrix composite from the mixture, where the metal matrix composite includes a bulk region and an outer surface including a plurality of hydrophobic regions dispersed within a hydrophilic surface region. Further, the plurality of hydrophobic regions is formed or derived from the plurality of nanoparticles, and the hydrophobic regions have a first diameter, and an average spacing between the hydrophobic regions is a second diameter, where the first and second diameters are about 100 nm to 400 nm.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-09-09

The present invention relates to kits and methods of modifying the prokaryotic genome a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system that utilized one nicking Cas nuclease and crRNAs. The kid and methods delete or replace portions of the prokaryotic genome. In some embodiments, an entire gene or multiple genes may be deleted or replaced.


Laser-induced fluorescence based optical system and method configured to precisely quantify the relative abundances of calcium (Ca) isotopes in a sample. Optionally, a diode laser is used as a laser source, with its output frequency shifted by two electro-optical modulators to optically excite fluorescence in the calcium-containing sample. The amounts of fluorescence emitted by the various isotopes are measured and compared.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2015-02-18

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide bisbiotin ligands and related conjugates and methods. The bisbiotin ligands, combined with streptavidin, can be used in the separation, labelling, targeting, and immobilization of biomolecules.


Described herein are platinum and palladium compounds with geometrically distorted charge transfer state, applications and methods for the preparation thereof. The platinum and/or palladium compounds described herein are capable of emitting light and can be used in light emitting devices.


Systems and methods for predicting order-of-magnitude viral cascades in social networks are disclosed.


Patent
Arizona State University and Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research | Date: 2016-08-08

A system and method for detecting central pulmonary embolisms in a subjects vasculature is provided. In some aspects, the method includes receiving, using the input, a set of images representing a vasculature of the subjects lungs, automatically analyzing the set of images to segment the main arteries associated with the subjects lungs and separate the main arteries from surrounding tissues. The method also includes automatically extracting central pulmonary embolism candidates from the set of images after segmenting and separating the main arteries, and automatically evaluating the central pulmonary embolism candidates in three-dimensional (3D) space by applying a series of rules. The method further includes automatically displaying a report indicating evaluated central pulmonary embolism candidates on a display.


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2016-09-26

This disclosure relates generally to physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry along with methods of generating numbers. In one embodiment, the PUF circuitry includes a memory, a memory control circuitry, and whitening circuitry. To reduce or eliminate the systematic bias from the array, whitening circuitry is configured to generate a random number comprising random number bits in response to the memory control circuit implementing at least one sequence of memory cycles on the array of the memory cells in the memory. The whitening circuitry is configured to provide the random number bits of the random number based on the variable bit states stored by the array of the memory cells. On average the whitening circuitry is configured to provide approximately half of the random number bits in the first bit state and half of random number bits in a second bit state.


Patent
Arizona State University and Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research | Date: 2015-04-24

A system and method for automated polyp detection in optical colonoscopy images is provided. In one embodiment, the system and method for polyp detection is based on an observation that image appearance around polyp boundaries differs from that of other boundaries in colonoscopy images. To reduce vulnerability against misleading objects, the image processing method localizes polyps by detecting polyp boundaries, while filtering out irrelevant boundaries, with a generative-discriminative model. To filter out irrelevant boundaries, a boundary removal mechanism is provided that captures changes in image appearance across polyp boundaries. Thus, in this embodiment the boundary removal mechanism is minimally affected by texture visibility limitations. In addition, a vote accumulation scheme is applied that enables polyp localization from fragmented edge segmentation maps without identification of whole polyp boundaries.


Chiral metal complexes having one of general formulae (1)-(4).


Patent
Arizona State University | Date: 2015-05-01

A fully integrated miniaturized optical biosensor and methods of making the same are disclosed. The biosensor may include a fluid transport system and an optical system.


A system and method for securing access to sensitive content on the web is disclosed. The approach automates compartmentalization practices for accessing different kinds of content with different browser instances. The automation is transparent to the user and does not require any modification of how non-sensitive content is accessed. For sensitive content, a Fresh Browser Instance (FBI) is automatically created to access the content. In addition, the automatic FBI system may provide support for novice users with predefined sensitive content sites as well as for more experienced users who can define conflict of interest (COI) classes which allows content from sites in the same user-defined class to coexist in a browser instance.


Some embodiments include a method of preparing a phototuned metal-organic framework by forming a first solution by dissolving ZrOCl_(2).8H_(2)O in dimethylformamide (DMF) and formic acid, mixing and dissolving 1,4-phenylenediacrylic acid in a second solution of dimethylformamide (DMF) and trimethylamine, and at least partially mixing the first and second solutions to form a mixture. The method further includes sealing the mixture in an autoclave and heating the mixture to above ambient temperature for a specified period of time to prepare ZrPDA metal-organic framework, and extracting the ZrPDA metal-organic framework and at least partially reacting to a specified degree at least some of ZrPDA metal-organic framework through [2+2] cycloaddition reactions. The specified degree can be tunable based at least in part on at least one of the intensity of UV radiation, the exposure time, and the UV wavelength.


Thermally activated delayed fluorescent compounds and uses thereof are described. The thermally activated delayed fluorescent compounds are an analogues of 9,10-dihydro-9,9-dimethylacridine compounds.


Fried E.I.,Quantitative Group | Nesse R.M.,Arizona State University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: The DSM-5 encompasses a wide range of symptoms for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Symptoms are commonly added up to sum-scores, and thresholds differentiate between healthy and depressed individuals. The underlying assumption is that all patients diagnosed with MDD have a similar condition, and that sum-scores accurately reflect the severity of this condition. To test this assumption, we examined the number of DSM-5 depression symptom patterns in the "Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression" (STAR∗D) study. Methods: We investigated the number of unique symptom profiles reported by 3703 depressed outpatients at the beginning of the first treatment stage of STAR∗D. Results: Overall, we identified 1030 unique symptom profiles. Of these profiles, 864 profiles (83.9%) were endorsed by five or fewer subjects, and 501 profiles (48.6%) were endorsed by only one individual. The most common symptom profile exhibited a frequency of only 1.8%. Controlling for overall depression severity did not reduce the amount of observed heterogeneity. Limitations: Symptoms were dichotomized to construct symptom profiles. Many subjects enrolled in STAR∗D reported medical conditions for which prescribed medications may have affected symptom presentation. Conclusions: The substantial symptom variation among individuals who all qualify for one diagnosis calls into question the status of MDD as a specific consistent syndrome and offers a potential explanation for the difficulty in documenting treatment efficacy. We suggest that the analysis of individual symptoms, their patterns, and their causal associations will provide insights that could not be discovered in studies relying on only sum-scores. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


He Y.,Zhejiang Normal University | Li B.,University of Texas at San Antonio | O'Keeffe M.,Arizona State University | Chen B.,University of Texas at San Antonio
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as porous coordination polymers (PCPs), are an emerging type of porous materials which are formed by the self-assembly of metallic centers and bridging organic linkers. Design and synthesis of organic linkers are very critical to target MOFs with desired structures and properties. In this review, we summarize and highlight the recent development of porous MOFs that are constructed from the multicarboxylate ligands containing m-benzenedicarboxylate moieties, and their promising applications in gas storage and separation, heterogeneous catalysis and luminescent sensing. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Fried E.I.,Quantitative Group | Nesse R.M.,Arizona State University
BMC Medicine | Year: 2015

Most measures of depression severity are based on the number of reported symptoms, and threshold scores are often used to classify individuals as healthy or depressed. This method - and research results based on it - are valid if depression is a single condition, and all symptoms are equally good severity indicators. Here, we review a host of studies documenting that specific depressive symptoms like sad mood, insomnia, concentration problems, and suicidal ideation are distinct phenomena that differ from each other in important dimensions such as underlying biology, impact on impairment, and risk factors. Furthermore, specific life events predict increases in particular depression symptoms, and there is evidence for direct causal links among symptoms. We suggest that the pervasive use of sum-scores to estimate depression severity has obfuscated crucial insights and contributed to the lack of progress in key research areas such as identifying biomarkers and more efficacious antidepressants. The analysis of individual symptoms and their causal associations offers a way forward. We offer specific suggestions with practical implications for future research. © Fried and Nesse.


Tan V.Y.F.,National University of Singapore | Kosut O.,Arizona State University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2014

We analyze the dispersions of distributed lossless source coding (the Slepian-Wolf problem), the multiple-access channel, and the asymmetric broadcast channel. For the two-encoder Slepian-Wolf problem, we introduce a quantity known as the entropy dispersion matrix, which is analogous to the scalar dispersions that have gained interest recently. We prove a global dispersion result that can be expressed in terms of this entropy dispersion matrix and provides intuition on the approximate rate losses at a given blocklength and error probability. To gain better intuition about the rate at which the nonasymptotic rate region converges to the Slepian-Wolf boundary, we define and characterize two operational dispersions: 1) the local dispersion and 2) the weighted sum-rate dispersion. The former represents the rate of convergence to a point on the Slepian-Wolf boundary, whereas the latter represents the fastest rate for which a weighted sum of the two rates converges to its asymptotic fundamental limit. Interestingly, when we approach either of the two corner points, the local dispersion is characterized not by a univariate Gaussian, but a bivariate one as well as a subset of off-diagonal elements of the aforementioned entropy dispersion matrix. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of our achievability proof technique by providing inner bounds for the multiple-access channel and the asymmetric broadcast channel in terms of dispersion matrices. All our proofs are unified by a so-called vector rate redundancy theorem, which is proved using the multidimensional Berry-Esséen theorem. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.97K | Year: 2014

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): About 3-4% of all fractures are estimated to be open fractures, where the fracture is exposed through defects in the skin and soft tissues. This equates to about 250,000 open fractures in the United States annually. Open fractures present a high risk of infection. Infection results in considerable financial burden to both the patient an healthcare system, requires repeat operations (often more than one), and can cause delayed fracture healing or nonunion. There is no suitable option available for local antimicrobial deliver to many open fractures. A biocompatible local delivery vehicle with a fast degradation time could provide effective coverage to a much wider range of open fractures than possible with available materials. Such a technology would provide a real benefit to patients and healthcare providers alike. A promising approach for preventing infections following open fractures is to use a resorbable controlled release carrier, SB Gel, for the sustained relea


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.99K | Year: 2013

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Orthopaedic Surgical Site Infections (SSIs), including Prosthetic Joint Infections (PJIs), are an extremely costly health care problem, illustrated by the 70,000- 114,000 average total cost per case to treat more than20,000 hip and knee replacement infections in the US each year. When a prosthetic joint becomes infected following arthroplasty, organisms form a biofilm on the prosthesis and become inaccessible to systemically delivered antibiotics or immune cells. There is no available option for antimicrobial delivery over the entire surface of a prosthetic joint that is press-fit directly into a bony implantation site, as the vast majority of implants are. Such a technology would provide a real benefit to patients andcould decrease the current costs of treating these infections by approximately 2,000,000,000 per year. A promising approach for preventing infections following joint replacement is to use reasorbable in situ forming gels for the sustained release of antimicrobial drugs. These new gels offer the following advantages for improved prevention of prosthetic joint infections: 1) efficient and sustained antibiotic release; 2) soft yet cohesive physical structure allowing for complete surface coverage and preventing the development of biofilm in isolated crevasses, and 3) rapid degradability allowing for normal bone healing, fixing the implant in place. The goal of the proposed work is to generate critical in vivo safety and efficacy data to support future investment in pre-clinical and clinical trials on these new, synthetic, and fully resorbable antimicrobial-releasing gels. To do this, in situ forming hydrogels will be evaluated with respect to their safety and two clinically relevant outcomes-the quality ofbone healing through the gel site and the efficacy of antibiotic-loaded gels in preventing infection on press-fit metal implants. Bone healing through the gel site will be evaluated by histology and load frame testing in a rabbit cancellous bone press-fitimplant model. The efficacy in preventing infection will be evaluated by press-fitting textured metal implants subjected to S. aureus into a void in cancellous bone pre-filled with antimicrobial- loaded gels. Successful completion of the proposed work will provide clinically relevant proof-of- principle data regarding the safety and efficacy of these hydrogels and in particular their use on the surface of orthopaedic implants. This data will immediately be used to lead to a pre-IND meeting with the FDA andwill attract future investment for the commercialization of this new drug product. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Infections of replacement knees and hips cost the U.S. healthcare system approximately 2,000,000,000 per year.Using new materials which can deliver antimicrobial drugs directly at the surface of joint replacements will lead to dramatically reduced infection rates and save our healthcare system hundreds of millions of dollars per year.


Posfai M.,University of Pannonia | Buseck P.R.,Arizona State University
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2010

Aerosol particles in the atmosphere exert a strong influence on climate by interacting with sunlight and by initiating cloud formation. Because the tropospheric aerosol is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types, its climate effects can only be fully understood through detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of individual particles. Here we review the results of individual-particle studies that use microscopy-based techniques, emphasizing transmission electron microscopy and focusing on achievements of the past ten years. We discuss the techniques that are best suited for studying distinct particle properties and provide a brief overview of major particle types, their identification, and their sources. The majority of this review is concerned with the optical properties and hygroscopic behavior of aerosol particles; we discuss recent results and highlight the potential of emerging microscopy techniques for analyzing the particle properties that contribute most to climate effects. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Fernando H.J.S.,Arizona State University | Fernando H.J.S.,University of Notre Dame
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

A majority of the world's urban centers are located in complex terrain, in which local airflow patterns are driven by pressure gradients and thermal forcing, while being strongly influenced by topographic effects and human (anthropogenic) activities. A paradigm in this context is a city located in a valley surrounded by mountains, slopes, and escarpments, in which the airflow is determined by terrain-induced perturbations to synoptic (background) flow, mesoscale thermal circulation (valley/slope flows) generated by local heating or cooling, and by their interaction with factitious (e.g., buildings and roads) and natural (e.g., vegetation and terrain) elements. The dynamics of airflows intrinsic to urban areas in complex terrain is reviewed here by employing idealized flow configurations to illustrate fundamental processes. Urban flows span a wide range of space and time scales and the emphasis here is on mesoscales (1-100 km). Basic fluid dynamics plays a central role in explaining observations of urban flow and in developing subgrid parameterizations for predictive models. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 494.88K | Year: 2014

A triple pulse PIV concept and a third order correlation method was developed and demonstrated improvements in accuracy and spatial resolution of the velocity and acceleration measurements in an impinging jet flow field. A low-cost system based on overdriven LEDs, uniquely designed single frame camera for capturing the images, efficient scattering techniques, and innovative algorithms were explored during Phase I in order to build a packaged system during Phase II. The proposed packaged system will have the capability to simultaneously measure velocity and acceleration fields of both the fluid and flexible structure undergoing coupled fluid-structure interactions and will be useful for large scale facilities such as towing tanks, water and wind tunnels; mounting to test vehicle; and synchronizing with other measurement acquisition devices. This low-cost technology will aid the research in academic and government research labs as a scientific and engineering tool and will also provide excellent benefits for vehicle designers in both the commercial and military sectors. The proposed technologies and knowledge generated from this project could also be helpful to achieve and maintain undersea dominance, improve mobile autonomous environmental sensing, maximize system performance through adaptation to the environment, and to improve environmental predictive capabilities. In addition, they can be useful to platform survivability and signature reduction, autonomous and unmanned vehicle mobility, develop modeling and simulation tools, develop efficient ship design analysis tools, and to modernize the existing platforms.


Patent
Arizona State University, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and President And Fellows Of Harvard College | Date: 2016-08-10

The present invention provides reagents and methods for breast cancer detection.


Patent
Arizona State University and Foundation University | Date: 2016-01-07

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients make antibodies to self-proteins that are potential biomarkers for early detection and risk prediction. We have identified seventeen antigens as biomarkers for early diagnosis and risk prediction of T1D, including the antigens MLH1, MTIF3, PPIL2, NUP50, TOX4, FIGN, C9orf142, ZNF280D, HES1, QRFPR, CTRC, SNX6, SYTL4, ELA2A, IGRP, PAX6, and HMGN3.


Li M.,Shantou University | Li D.,Shantou University | O'Keeffe M.,Arizona State University | O'Keeffe M.,KAIST | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

A consistent approach to the description on the structures of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and related materials are studied in terms of their underlying nets for cases in which these nets have more than two kinds of vertices. For MOFs formed from polytopic linkers, identifying both the basic net in which the linker is considered as a single node and the derived net in which branch points are identified explicitly, is recommended. The intrinsic symmetry of the crystal is that of the derived net, which may be lower than that of the basic net. The net gwg, derived from cds, is an example in which a tetragonal basic net has only a monoclinic derived net of minimal transitivity. Structures with different derived nets that may have the same symmetry can be differentiated. The basic nets with transitivity 3 2 (type iv of section 7) are particularly important in this regard. Several MOFs have been constructed using an octatopic linker with symmetrical shapes.


O'Keeffe M.,Arizona State University | O'Keeffe M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yaghi O.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yaghi O.M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

The identification and description of the nets that describe the underlying topology of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) is presented. Alexandrov et al. discussed a crystal of linked paddle wheels reported by Chun. In this material, the four points of extension of the Zn 2(CO 2) 4 paddle wheel are linked to methyl isophthalic acid. A MOF formed by coordination of alkali metal ions by γ-cyclodextrin (CD), a symmetrical cyclic oligosaccharide consisting of a ring of eight C 6 monosaccharide units that is readily available in large quantities, is also studied. A structure discussed by Alexandrov et al. consists of CuN 6 octahedra linked by triazole/tetrazole linkers. The net is identified as a binodal (4,6)-c net with vertices corresponding to the Cu atoms, and the center of the linkers are considered as tetratopic.


Patent
Arizona State University, University of Minnesota and Crestovo LLC | Date: 2016-05-23

The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for treating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by restoring an ASD patients gut microbiota. These methods can be used with ASD patient with or without ongoing gastrointestinal symptoms. Provided here is a method for ASD treatment in a subject in need thereof comprising or consisting essentially of administering a therapeutic composition comprising a fecal microbe or a fecal microbiota preparation to the subject. Also provided here is a method comprises administering an antibiotic to a human subject; subjecting the human subject to a bowel cleanse; and administering purified fecal microbiota to the human subject. Further provided are evaluation and quantitative characterization of patient symptom improvements upon treatment described here.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 224.74K | Year: 2015

The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I project addresses the issue of communicative ability in individuals with neurogenic disorders. The inability to engage in spoken communication is among the most debilitating of all human conditions. Because treatment is behavioral and intensive, access to care and quality of care are significant issues. These are problems that disproportionately affect those in rural and underserved areas, leaving them with a persistent communication deficit. The clinical implications of the tools proposed here are considerable. The analytical approach summarized in this proposal should both improve the performance of individual speech and language pathologists while also enabling them to serve many more patients. Such a tool could be deployed to individuals with increased risk of Parkinson?s, Alzheimer?s, or other related neurological disorders that impact speech production. The proposed project addresses these issues through a tool that allows patients to remotely record speech and video samples and provides a variety of derived calculations, novel and traditional, to assess the integrity of speech. This approach provides access to expertise in rural areas with the goal of reducing health disparities in the field. The approach makes use of recent technical advances in the emerging field of personalized telemedicine, in conjunction with the increasingly widespread use of tablets in clinical practice, to remotely track abnormal speech production in at-risk individuals and augment human perceptual evaluation through modern data analytics. Realizing this vision requires the development of an advanced signal processing methodology and a suite of mobile applications that implements it in scalable fashion.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2015

The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project centers on revolutionizing medical endoscopy. Advantages of minimally invasive surgery are becoming broadly appreciated. In particular, its effects on both the time and end-points of patient recovery are strong incentives to develop new, minimally invasive tools. Today, a broad range of complex surgeries allow for treatment of a wide variety of pathologies, yet there are still many procedures that are limited by the size and flexibility of the surgical visualization tools. A chip-on-the tip endoscope built around a new imaging sensor will dramatically expand the range of minimally invasive surgery by significantly reducing the size of the entire optical train. Smaller imaging devices with higher resolution will extend the reach of the surgeon to currently inaccessible areas of the body. Such a device will also give rise to increased scope maneuverability and allow the addition of other operating tools within the endoscope. This combination of improvements will enable more complicated procedures within challenging surgical corridors. This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project is aimed at developing the world?s smallest endoscopic cameras. Medical practitioners continuously push for smaller, smarter visualization tools. Existing imaging technologies are approaching fundamental barriers with pixel sizes hovering at one micron because noise increases as pixel size decreases for traditional pixel architectures. As a result, with the miniaturization of cameras there is a sharp decrease in image quality. This proposal investigates deep sub-micron imaging pixels that function using a novel mechanism where light drives transitions between ballistic and diffusive carrier transport. Reducing these image sensors to practice requires an understanding of the ballistic transport mechanisms that drive the devices and the feasibility of integrating deep sub-micron pixels with compatible supporting technologies. Computer simulations will be used to probe external and internal driving forces that affect carrier transport. Using this semiconductor technology, the size of the image sensor pixels can be shrunk to hundreds of nanometers, enabling a new class of ultra-thin ?chip-on-the tip? endoscopes that overcomes performance barriers of size, image quality and functionality.

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