Arizona City, AZ, United States
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Staples G.W.,The Herbarium | Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum | Simao-Bianchini R.,Institute Botanica Curadoria do Herbario
Taxon | Year: 2012

This paper accounts for all the names published by A. Peter in his account of Convolvulaceae for Engler and Prantl's Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. In total, 31 Peter names in Convolvulaceae, 22 new species and 9 new combinations, are resolved in this paper. The taxonomy, nomenclature, and relevant literature are discussed for each name. Lectotypes or neotypes are chosen for some names that have not previously been typified.

Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum | Staples G.,Singapore Botanic Gardens | Bianchini R.S.,Institute Botanica
Taxon | Year: 2014

Previous lectotypification of Ipomoea hederacea is shown to be ineffective. Here we discuss the situation and lectotypify the species with a specimen annotated by Jacquin. Ipomoea hederacea is not based on Convolvulus hederaceus L., since Jacquin was applying the name to a different taxon and therefore did not intend to publish a combination based on Convolvulus hederaceus. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2014.

Klotz S.A.,University of Arizona | Schmidt J.O.,Southwestern Biological Institute | Dorn P.L.,Loyola University New Orleans | Ivanyi C.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

Background Kissing bugs, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, are common in the desert Southwest. After a dispersal flight in summer, adult kissing bugs occasionally gain access to houses where they remain feeding on humans and pets. How often wild, free-roaming kissing bugs feed on humans outside their homes has not been studied. This is important because contact of kissing bugs with humans is one means of gauging the risk for acquisition of Chagas disease. Methods We captured kissing bugs in a zoological park near Tucson, Arizona, where many potential vertebrate hosts are on display, as well as being visited by more than 300,000 humans annually. Cloacal contents of the bugs were investigated for sources of blood meals and infection with T. cruzi. Results Eight of 134 captured bugs were randomly selected and investigated. All 8 (100%) had human blood in their cloacae, and 7 of 8 (88%) had fed on various vertebrates on display or feral in the park. Three bugs (38%) were infected with T. cruzi. Three specimens of the largest species of kissing bug in the United States (Triatoma recurva) were captured in a cave and walking on a road; 2 of 3 (67%) had fed on humans. No T. recurva harbored T. cruzi. Conclusions This study establishes that free-roaming kissing bugs, given the opportunity, frequently feed on humans outside the confines of their homes in the desert Southwest and that some harbored T. cruzi. This could represent a hitherto unrecognized potential for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States.

Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
Economic Botany | Year: 2013

Moon-Flower (Ipomoea alba, Convolvulaceae)-Medicine, Rubber Enabler, and Ornamental: A Review. Native to the Americas, moon-flower (Ipomoea alba) was first recorded by Europeans with its Taino common name in the 1520s. Subsequently, the species was reported from India with a Malayalam name in the 1660s. In the time between, the climbers had been transported around the world. A dominant reason for the spread was because of the medicinal uses the Europeans had learned in the Americas. Although the Spanish report of I. alba being used in making rubber in the Americas was published in the 1520s, no one realized it was that species until the 1800s. In part because of the early spread from its region of nativity into the Old World, scientists in Europe were confused about the origin of the species. As moon-flower was overshadowed by other medicinal species in the 1800s, people began to utilize the climbers for horticultural purposes. © 2013 The New York Botanical Garden.

Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
Economic Botany | Year: 2013

The Origin of Quamoclit (Ipomoea quamoclit, Convolvulaceae): A Review. Although it was originally American, I. quamoclit reached Europe by the 1550s. The vines are recorded from both Europe and India in the 1500s and were taken to both places because of its medical uses. While the species is now known as a garden ornamental and weed, there is a complicated record dealing with its early Renaissance discovery, transport, and the names it brought with it or that were later applied. Several aspects of these topics are discussed. © 2013 The New York Botanical Garden.

Aslan C.E.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
American Midland Naturalist | Year: 2015

I studied pollination of the Arizona hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus arizonicus), an endangered plant species occurring in the Superstition Mountains, Arizona, in order to identify the pollinators of the species, determine whether the species is self-incompatible or pollen-limited, and evaluate whether individuals transplanted to make way for habitat disturbance continue to receive pollination. The flowers of E. arizonicus are large, bright red, and cup-shaped. Important flower visitors included hummingbirds and native halictid bees. Flower visitor guilds were similar between the wild population and the transplanted individuals (located in the Boyce Thompson Arboretum in Pinal County, Arizona), although the Arboretum is located at a low elevation and supports much higher abundances of flowering plants and pollinators than occur in the wild sites. Pollination treatments indicated E. arizonicus is highly self-incompatible but not pollen-limited and hummingbird visitation is relatively more important to seed set than is insect visitation but both contribute to total seed counts. © 2014, American Midland Naturalist.

Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
Economic Botany | Year: 2011

Indian Potato (Ipomoea pandurata, Convolvulaceae)-A Record of Confusion. Once European explorers began sending back plants from distant lands, confusion developed regarding their identities. Among these was Ipomoea pandurata, which native peoples in the eastern United States considered to be a purgative. Unfortunately, edible plants like potatoes were confused with I. pandurata, and by the early 1900s Americans and Europeans began writing that indigenous peoples also ate its roots. The literature for the late 1900s into the 2000s mostly reports that I. pandurata is edible. Although no documented use for food by pre-European cultures in the Americas has been found, the myth persists that the roots were eaten on a regular basis. © 2011 The New York Botanical Garden.

Felger R.S.,University of Arizona | Van Devender T.R.,Sky Island Alliance | Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum | Jesus Sanchez-Escalante J.,University of Sonora | Costea M.,Wilfrid Laurier University
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas | Year: 2012

Based on decades of field work and herbarium research we document 84 species of Convolvulaceae (convolvs) in nine genera for the state of Sonora, Mexico: lpomoea (41 species), Cuscuta (21), Evolvulus (6), Jacquemontia (4), Merremia (4), Dichondra (3), Convolvulus (2), Operculina (2), Cressa (1). This species richness compares with the more tropical regions of southern Mexico (e.g., Bajfo region, Veracruz) and Central America (Costa Rica, Nicaragua). Convolv species occur in a diverse range of plant communities from intertidal zones to mountain conifer forest, with highest diversity in tropical deciduous forest and oak woodlands in ten major vegetation types: tropical deciduous forest (44), oak woodland (34), Sonoran desert (33), foothills thornscrub (31), coastal thornscrub (30), pine-oak forest (27), grassland (13), Chihuahuan desert (11), coastal salt scrub and mangroves (1), and mixed conifer forest (1). Nearly 10 percent of the Sonoran convolvs are not native to the region. The majority of worldwide and Sonoran convolvs are scandent annuals or herbaceous perennials with twining stems. Three native Sonoran lpomoea are trees or large shrubs: I arborescens, J chilopsidis, and I. seaania. The Cuscuta of Sonora are discussed in a separate article in this volume (Costea et al. 2012a). We revise the nomenclature and typification of all the taxa. We give the correct names and synonyms for all taxa and provide special attention to details regarding the place of publication and type specimens. Lectotypes are chosen for nine species. Special attention has been paid to providing correct authorities and publication information in view of incorrect data that circulated in major floristic and biodiversity databases. Dichotomous identification keys, detailed descriptions, phenology, local and global geographic distribution data are provided. Known indigenous names and uses are given for Sonoran convolvs when known.

Franklin K.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

In northwestern Mexico, large tracts of native desert scrub and thorn scrub vegetation are being converted to non-native grass pastures at an increasing rate in an effort to increase cattle production. Pasture development has large impacts on vegetation structure and perennial plant diversity, but little is known of the potential ecological consequences of this landscape transformation for other taxa. I compared the abundance, diversity, species composition and structure of ant assemblages in native habitats and non-native grass pastures across a longitudinal rainfall gradient in central Sonora, Mexico. Land conversion resulted in minor reductions of alpha and gamma diversity and had no effect on beta diversity or species turnover. The influence of land conversion on species composition was small in comparison to the influence of other factors. In addition, ant assemblages in native habitats and non-native grass pastures were similar to each other in regards to both species relative abundance distributions and functional group composition. These results suggest that ants are remarkably resilient to the conversion of native desert scrub and thorn scrub habitats to non-native grass pastures, which is consistent with the growing body of research reporting weak and inconsistent responses of ant assemblages to grazing in arid rangelands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Austin D.F.,Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2012

The plants of the genus Sambucus, called elder or elder-berry in English, have been associated with major and minor deities longer than history records. In contrast to gods and goddesses, other applications of sambucus are made in more secular ways. Sambucus and its variants have been applied to five entities-plants, a musical instrument (sambuca), a military device (sambuca), a sailing vessel (sambuq, sanbuq, from Qubnz), and a liquor (sambuca). Each of these connotations is separated, some slightly and others markedly, from the others by fragmented historical records. While the most ancient application known is for the musical instrument, the designation of a plant is not much, if any, younger. The war machine is almost the same age as the plant tradition. Considerably more recent are the labels of a ship and alcoholic drink. This synopsis puts these records together to reveal a history of intercultural exchange and the evolution of terminology.

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