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Tucson, AZ, United States

Svirsky I.,EM Residency | Svirsky I.,University of Arizona | Stoneking L.R.,EM Residency | Grall K.,EM Residency | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding is a national problem. Initiating orders in triage has been shown to decrease length of stay (LOS), however, nurse, physician assistant, and attending physician advanced triage have all been criticized. Study Objectives: Our primary objective was to show that Emergency Medicine resident-initiated advanced triage shortens patient LOS. Our secondary objective was to evaluate whether or not resident triage decreases the number of patients who left prior to medical screening (LPTMS). Methods: This prospective interventional study was performed in a 42-bed, Level III trauma center, academic ED in the United States, with an annual census of approximately 41,000 patients. A junior or senior Emergency Medicine resident initiated orders on 16 weekdays for 6 h daily on patients presenting to triage. Patients evaluated during the 6-h period on other weekdays served as the control. The study was powered to detect a reduction in LOS of 45 min. Multivariable median regression was used to compare length of stay and Fisher's exact test to compare proportions. Results: There were 1346 patients evaluated in the ED during the intervention time. Regression analysis showed a 37-min decrease in median LOS for patients on intervention days as compared to control days (p = 0.02). The proportion of patients who LPTMS was not statistically different (p = 0.7) for intervention days (96/1346, 7.13%) compared to control days (136/1810, 7.51%). Conclusions: Resident-initiated advanced triage is an effective method to decrease patient LOS, however, our effect size is smaller than predicted and did not significantly affect the percent of patients leaving before medical screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Honkonen M.N.,University of Arizona | Honkonen M.N.,Banner University Medical Center | Mcneill P.,Walgreens Pharmacy | Jasensky A.,Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center | And 2 more authors.
Renal Failure | Year: 2016

Background: In hemodialysis, hypertension is treated by removing excess fluid and antihypertensive therapy. Commonly, the antihypertensives used to treat hypertension in earlier stages of kidney disease are continued as the patient progresses into end-stage renal disease and begins dialysis, without much evidence for benefit. Methods: This study is a single center, retrospective chart review that included hemodialysis patients admitted for congestive heart failure (CHF), fluid overload, or pulmonary edema as determined by ICD-9 code (428.x, 276.6, 518.4, 506.1). The primary objective was to determine if the number or class of antihypertensives used in the chronic hemodialysis population increased the number of readmissions related to CHF, fluid overload, or pulmonary edema. Patients were separated into two groups based on total number of antihypertensive medications, less than or equal to 2 medications for group 1 and greater than two medications for group 2. The primary endpoint was 30-day readmission for CHF, fluid overload, or pulmonary edema. Results: For the study period, 85 individual patient charts met inclusion criteria. Group 1 (n = 44) experienced seven readmissions (16%) and group 2 (n = 41) experienced eight readmissions (18%) (p = 0.663). The most common antihypertensives at discharge were ACE inhibitors for group 1 (45%) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers for group 2 (66%). No difference in systolic blood pressures before, during and after hemodialysis was found between groups. Conclusions: Antihypertensive medications continue to play an important role in the hemodialysis population. This study suggests that drug class and quantity of antihypertensives do not alter readmission rate in the setting of fluid overload. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Bush S.P.,East Carolina University | Ruha A.-M.,Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center | Seifert S.A.,University of New Mexico | Morgan D.L.,Scott and White Memorial Hospital | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2015

Background. Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) has been the only antivenom commercially available in the US since 2007 for treatment of Crotalinae envenomation. Late coagulopathy can occur or recur after clearance of Fab antivenom, often after hospital discharge, lasting in some cases more than 2 weeks. There have been serious, even fatal, bleeding complications associated with recurrence phenomena. Frequent follow-up is required, and additional intervention or hospitalization is often necessary. F(ab')2 immunoglobulin derivatives have longer plasma half life than do Fab. We hypothesized that F(ab')2 antivenom would be superior to Fab in the prevention of late coagulopathy following treatment of patients with Crotalinae envenomation. Methods. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, comparing late coagulopathy in snakebitten patients treated with F(ab')2 with maintenance doses [F(ab')2/F(ab')2], or F(ab')2 with placebo maintenance doses [F(ab')2/placebo], versus Fab with maintenance doses [Fab/Fab]. The primary efficacy endpoint was coagulopathy (platelet count < 150 K/mm3, fibrinogen level < 150 mg/dL) between end of maintenance dosing and day 8. Results. 121 patients were randomized at 18 clinical sites and received at least one dose of study drug. 114 completed the study. Of these, 11/37 (29.7%) in the Fab/Fab cohort experienced late coagulopathy versus 4/39 (10.3%, p < 0.05) in the F(ab')2/F(ab')2 cohort and 2/38 (5.3%, p < 0.05) in the F(ab')2/placebo cohort. The lowest heterologous protein exposure was with F(ab')2/placebo. No serious adverse events were related to study drug. In each study arm, one patient experienced an acute serum reaction and one experienced serum sickness. Conclusions. In this study, management of coagulopathic Crotalinae envenomation with longer-half-life F(ab')2 antivenom, with or without maintenance dosing, reduced the risk of subacute coagulopathy and bleeding following treatment of envenomation. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Massey D.J.,Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center | Calvete J.J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Calvete J.J.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia | Sanchez E.E.,Texas A&M University-Kingsville | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

Twenty-one Mojave rattlesnakes, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (C. s. scutulatus), were collected from Arizona and New Mexico U.S.A. Venom proteome of each specimen was analyzed using reverse-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE. The toxicity of venoms was analyzed using lethal dose 50 (LD 50). Health severity outcomes between two Arizona counties U.S.A., Pima and Cochise, were determined by retrospective chart review of the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center (APDIC) database between the years of 2002 and 2009. Six phenotypes (A-F) were identified based on three venom protein families; Mojave toxin, snake venom metalloproteinases PI and PIII (SVMP), and myotoxin-A. Venom changed geographically from SVMP-rich to Mojave toxin-rich phenotypes as you move from south central to southeastern Arizona. Phenotypes containing myotoxin-A were only found in the transitional zone between the SVMP and Mojave toxin phenotypes. Venom samples containing the largest amounts of SVMP or Mojave toxin had the highest and lowest LD 50s, respectively. There was a significant difference when comparing the presence of neurotoxic effects between Pima and Cochise counties (p=0.001). No significant difference was found when comparing severity (p=0.32), number of antivenom vials administered (p=0.17), days spent in a health care facility (p=0.23) or envenomation per 100,000 population (p=0.06). Although not part of the original data to be collected, death and intubations, were also noted. There is a 10× increased risk of death and a 50× increased risk of intubations if envenomated in Cochise County. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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