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Wu B.,Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility | Zan L.,Northwest University, China
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2012

Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Qiu M.,Northwest University, China | Quan F.,Northwest University, China | Han C.,Northwest University, China | Wu B.,Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of granulosa cells from small antral follicles on steroidogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis of goat ovarian stromal and theca cells in vitro. Using Transwell co-culture system, we evaluated androgen production, LH responsiveness, cell proliferation and apoptosis and some molecular expression regarding steroidogenic enzyme and apoptosis-related genes in stromal and theca cells. The results indicated that the co-culture with granulosa cells increased steroidogenesis, LH responsiveness and bcl-2 gene expression as well as decreased apoptotic bax and bad expressions in stromal and theca cells. Thus, granulosa cells had a capacity of promoting steroidogenesis in stromal cell and LH responsiveness in cortical stromal cells, maintaining steroidogenesis in theca cells, inhibiting apoptosis of cortical stromal cells and improving anti-apoptotic abilities of stromal and theca cells. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang H.,Northwest University, China | Wu B.,Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility | Liu H.,Northwest University, China | Qiu M.,Northwest University, China | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

α-Lipoic acid (LA) is a powerful antioxidant for clinical therapy of some metabolic diseases, but there are few reports about the effect of LA on animal occyte invitro maturation (IVM). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of supplementing LA to IVM medium on subsequently developmental competence of goat cloning embryos after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT). Twenty-five micromolars LA significantly increased 12% oocyte maturation rate from control 57.8% to treated group 69.8% (P < 0.05). The reconstructed rate of cloning embryos in LA supplement group (67.3%) was significantly higher than control (56.5%, P < 0.05). Although the SCNT embryo cleavage rates did not have significant difference between the two groups (42.0% vs. 47.9%, P > 0.05), LA supplement group had significantly higher blastocyst formation rate and hatched rate than control (24.0% vs. 18.4% and 37.0% vs. 30.9%, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, supplementing LA significantly reduced the cellular apoptosis rate of nucleus transfer blastocysts by inhibiting the expression of apoptotic activators, such as Bax, Bad, Caspase-3, and CytC genes and promoting cumulus-oocyte complexes to synthesize glutathione (GSH) and express antioxidant enzymes such as GPX4 and SOD genes. In conclusion, supplement of LA to oocyte IVM medium could improve the maturation rate and antioxidant ability of oocytes and increase the developmental competence of oocytes after SCNT. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Qiu M.,Northwest University, China | Liu J.,Northwest University, China | Han C.,Northwest University, China | Wu B.,Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility | And 4 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: Early follicular development is closely related to oocyte-granulosa cells-ovarian stromal cells/theca cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ovarian cortical, medullary stromal and theca cells on oestradiol and progesterone biosynthesis, proliferation and apoptosis of goat ovary granulosa cells in vitro. Using Transwell coculture system, we evaluated steroidogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and some molecular expressions regarding steroidogenic enzyme, luteinizing hormone receptor and apoptosis-related genes in granulosa cells. The results indicated that ovarian stromal/theca cells were able to stimulate oestradiol and progesterone production, promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of granulosa cells. Among all the three kinds of cells, theca cells affected strongly on granulosa cell function, and ovarian medullary stromal cells had the weakest effect on granulosa cells. These findings would provide an important knowledge of cell interaction among follicular cells during follicular development. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Wu B.,Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility | Shi J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Zhao W.,Xian Jiaotong University | Lu S.,Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2014

Purpose: Evaluating the failed IVF cycle often provides useful prognostic information. Before undergoing another attempt, patients experiencing an unsuccessful IVF cycle frequently request information about the probability of future success. Here, we introduced the concept of reproducibility and formulae to predict the next IVF cycle outcome.Methods: The experimental design was based on the retrospective review of IVF cycle data from 2006 to 2013 in two different IVF centers and statistical analysis. The reproducibility coefficients (r) of IVF traits including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization, embryo quality and pregnancy were estimated using the interclass correlation coefficient between the repeated IVF cycle measurements for the same patient by variance component analysis. The formulae were designed to predict next IVF cycle outcome.Results: The number of oocytes retrieved from patients and their fertilization rate had the highest reproducibility coefficients (r = 0.81 ~ 0.84), which indicated a very close correlation between the first retrieval cycle and subsequent IVF cycles. Oocyte maturity and number of top quality embryos had middle level reproducibility (r = 0.38 ~ 0.76) and pregnancy rate had a relative lower reproducibility (r = 0.23 ~ 0.27). Based on these parameters, the next outcome for these IVF traits might be accurately predicted by the designed formulae.Conclusions: The introduction of the concept of reproducibility to our human IVF program allows us to predict future IVF cycle outcomes. The traits of oocyte numbers retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization, and top quality embryos had higher or middle reproducibility, which provides a basis for accurate prediction of future IVF outcomes. Based on this prediction, physicians may counsel their patients or change patient’s stimulation plans, and laboratory embryologists may improve their IVF techniques accordingly. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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