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Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Dhaka S.K.,University of Delhi | Reddy K.K.,Yogi Vemana University | Gupta A.,University of Delhi | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2014

The effect of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the temperature of cold point tropopause (T-CPT) and its height (H-CPT) is being investigated using radio occultation measurements by COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3. Observations comprising of 935,863 numbers of occultations have been used to study the zonal mean seasonal variability in T-CPT and H-CPT from January 2007 to December 2011. Results are shown over 30°N-30°S geographic latitudes. In general, T-CPT is found to be the coldest in February and the warmest in August. H-CPT attains maximum height during December-February and minimum during July-August. Interestingly, H-CPT shows maxima at off-equator region (around 20°N or 20°S) during all the seasons in both hemispheres. H-CPT at off-equatorial region, in reference to the equatorial region, is slightly higher (~. 1.0. km) during winter as compared to monsoon season (~. 0.5. km) in Northern Hemisphere (NH). Inter-annual variation in T-CPT and H-CPT found to be clearly influenced by the QBO. Westerly (easterly) phase generates warm (cold) T-CPT, which consequently results a decrease (increase) in H-CPT. It is concluded that QBO induces the changes in T-CPT by as much as 2. °C and in H-CPT by 0.5. km. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Gopalswamy N.,NASA | Xie H.,NASA | Makela P.,NASA | Yashiro S.,NASA | And 13 more authors.
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2013

Employing coronagraphic and EUV observations close to the solar surface made by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we determined the heliocentric distance of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the starting time of associated metric type II bursts. We used the wave diameter and leading edge methods and measured the CME heights for a set of 32 metric type II bursts from solar cycle 24. We minimized the projection effects by making the measurements from a view that is roughly orthogonal to the direction of the ejection. We also chose image frames close to the onset times of the type II bursts, so no extrapolation was necessary. We found that the CMEs were located in the heliocentric distance range from 1.20 to 1.93 solar radii (Rs), with mean and median values of 1.43 and 1.38 Rs, respectively. We conclusively find that the shock formation can occur at heights substantially below 1.5 Rs. In a few cases, the CME height at type II onset was close to 2 Rs. In these cases, the starting frequency of the type II bursts was very low, in the range 25-40 MHz, which confirms that the shock can also form at larger heights. The starting frequencies of metric type II bursts have a weak correlation with the measured CME/shock heights and are consistent with the rapid decline of density with height in the inner corona. © 2012 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yashiro S.,Catholic University of America | Yashiro S.,NASA | Gopalswamy N.,NASA | Makela P.,Catholic University of America | And 16 more authors.
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2014

Active region NOAA 11158 produced many flares during its disk passage. At least two of these flares can be considered as homologous: the C6.6 flare at 06:51 UT and C9.4 flare at 12:41 UT on February 14, 2011. Both flares occurred at the same location (eastern edge of the active region) and have a similar decay of the GOES soft X-ray light curve. The associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were slow (334 and 337 km/s) and of similar apparent widths (43° and 44°), but they had different radio signatures. The second event was associated with a metric type II burst while the first one was not. The COR1 coronagraphs on board the STEREO spacecraft clearly show that the second CME propagated into the preceding CME that occurred 50 min before. These observations suggest that CME-CME interaction might be a key process in exciting the type II radio emission by slow CMEs. © 2014 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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