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Quetta, Pakistan

Qasim Khan M.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Irshad H.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Jahangir M.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center | Razzaq A.,Arid Zone Research Center
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2012

This paper presents data on the prevalence, biology and control of warble fly infestation (WFI) in cattle and goats in Pakistan. A questionnaire for obtaining information on biology and prevalence was circulated amongst field veterinary staff and livestock farmers in all five provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [KPK] and Gilgit-Baltistan) and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the country. A total of 1,019 questionnaires were received (Punjab = 296, Sindh = 246, KPK = 318, Balochistan = 151, Gilgit-Baltistan = 8). Warble fly infestation was reported from each province and from the federally administered tribal areas, particularly from hilly, semi-hilly and sandy desert areas (the Cholistan desert, which adjoins the Rehim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts, and the Nara area of Sanghar district). Warbles (nodules) started appearing on the backs of the infested animals from September through December and disappeared from October through March. The prevalence of WFI varied from 5% to 75%. It was highest in hilly areas and gradually decreased towards the plains. A map was developed of warble flyinfested areas. Four field trials were conducted to study the efficacy of different drugs indicated for the control of warble fly infestation. A total of 2,094 cattle and 3,876 goats were given five different injectables (avermectins); namely, Ivomec, Endectin, Euvectin, Dectomax and Promectin (ivermectin) during the first three weeks of September. A control group was given normal saline. All the medicines were found to be effective in controlling infestation.

Hamdullah A.,Brewery Road | Lateef M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Maqbool A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Jabbar M.A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

In present study, four sheep breeds (i.e., Balochi, Rakhshani, Karakul and Cross) were evaluated for resistance with three anthelmintics (Oxfendazole. Levamisole and Ivermectin) against nematodes (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus and Ostertagia) between April 2011 to March 2012 at Maslakh Sheep Farm, Pishin district, Balochistan. The overall results showed that there was reduction of EPG between 95% to 99% indicating the susceptibility of these anthelmintics against nematodes in the study area. The results of egg hatch test showed LC 50 less than 0.1μg/ml of oxfendazole. This indicated that no resistance was found in eggs hatching to oxfendazole. In addition, the Egg hatch test also confirmed the result of Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test. The qualitative examination of faecal samples after Coproculture revealed four gastrointestinal nematode genera, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus and Ostertagia. Copyright 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Tehmina S.,University of Balochistan | Shahina R.,University of Balochistan | Razzaq A.,Arid Zone Research Center | Marghazani I.B.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Khosa A.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2014

The prevalence of Paramphistomum cervi infestation in Balochi, Babrik and Harnai sheep breeds from Balochistan (Pakistan) was studied during September to December 2010. For this purpose, rumen of slaughtered sheep in Quetta City and surroundings (n=1,200) were examined. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among age, sex, breed and season of P. cervi infestation in animals. The overall P. cervi infestation (17.83%) was recorded in animals during the study period. Considering age, a higher prevalence (p<0.05) of infestation (23.5%) was observed in animals older than two years-old. On the contrary, lower parasitation (p<0.05, 16.66%) was detected in less than one year-old group. Regarding sex, females (22.33%) were found to be more infested (p<0.05) than males (17.83%). The Balochi and Harnai sheeps showed higher prevalence of infestation (p<0.05) compared to Babrik sheeps. Considering the season of the year, P. cervi prevalence was the highest (p<0.05, 19.25%) during October, followed by November (15.75%), September (12.75%) and December (12.5%). © 2013.

Razzaq A.,Arid Zone Research Center | Ashraf K.,The University of Lahore | Maqbool A.,The University of Lahore | Khan M.A.,The University of Lahore | Islam M.,Pakistan Agricultural Resaerch Council
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

In present research study, three experiments were launched during January 2011 to December 2011. Experiment I, Epidemiology: A total 1200 faecal samples (100 per month) were collected from farmers Bibrik-sheep (either sexes, 1-5 years old) and analyzed for nematodes prevalence. Experiment II, Sero-diagnosis: The sera samples of healthy and nematodes infected sheep were analyzed through ELISA. Experiment III, Therapeutic trial: comparative efficacy of herbal and synthetic anthelmintics was determined. Results showed that overall 40.25% Bibrik-sheep were infected with nematodes. Five nematode genera were recorded with higher prevalence of Haemonchus (10.42%) followed by Strongyloides (8.75%), Trichostrongylus (7.33%), Nematodirus (6.92%), and Trichuris (6.83%). The older age ewes presented higher nematodes prevalence. These five genera of nematodes were prevalent throughout the year. However, two peaks of nematodes prevalence i.e. March/May and August/December 2011 were observed. The level of nematodes infection was mostly low (< 2000 EPG) and did not impair the sheep productivity seriously. Haemonchus and Trichuris positive samples, based on coprological examination indicated 100% positive sensitivity for each genus of nematode by the ELISA, based on crude somatic antigen, while based on excretory antigen, showed lower (92%) sensitivity. The higher (86-100%) reduction of EPG was recorded in sheep treated with Ivermectin, while lower (68-96%) with Atreefal deedan.

Kakar H.,Spiny Road | Lateef M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Maqbool A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Jabbar M.A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in slaughter house at Quetta, Balochistan, from April 2011 to March 2012. A total of 960 gastrointestinal tract samples (80 per month) of sheep were examined during the study period. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 49.47% with the intensity of 516.63 in sheep. The higher monthly prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes was observed during April (65%) followed by November (62.5%) and October (57.5%). Statistically there was significant differences (P<0.05) amongst months. The genus-wise intensity among gastrointestinal nematodes was presented higher by Haemonchus (213.05), followed by Trichostrongylus (137.05), Trichuris (90.1), Ostertagia (44.21) and Nematodirus (32.21). Breed-wise prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes was higher in Balochi (50.20%) than the Harnai breed (48.75%). While, sex-wise prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes was higher in female (56.87%) as compared to the male (42.08%). Age-wise prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep was higher in the age group of < 1 year (60.83%) followed >2 years (43.33%) and 1-2 years (41.25%). Statistically there was no significant difference P > 0.05 between breeds, sex and age groups. Five genera of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were recovered during study period. Among these Haemonchus was the highest (71.36%) prevalent followed by Trichostrongylus (58.49%), Trichuris (28.84%), Ostertagia (17.26%) and Nematodirus (9.47%). © 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

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