Arid Lands Institute IRA

Medenine, Tunisia

Arid Lands Institute IRA

Medenine, Tunisia
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Aube L.,University of Bari | Fatnassi M.,Arid Lands Institute Ira | Monaco D.,University of Bari | Khorchani T.,Arid Lands Institute Ira | And 3 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2017

Background. Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods. Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results. The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19), while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85). Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57) but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors) reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors) reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =-0.287, P = 0.005). Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r =0.164, P =0.040). Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =-0.297; P =0.003). Discussion. These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance conditions outlined in the study. Daily rhythmicity seemed to be entrained not only by the light-dark cycle but also by scheduled feeding. The rise in stereotypy after food distribution could be due to the persistence of feeding motivation and frustration after the ingestion of food. Therefore, feeding practices should be improved to satisfy the foraging and feeding motivation of these camels. Behavioral and hormonal daily patterns in camels should be taken in consideration to adapt the management system, giving the animals more freedom during the light period and a diet richer in fiber, so as to improve reproductive performance, health and welfare. © 2017 Aubè et al.

Gisbert C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Gammoudi N.,Arid Lands Institute IRA | Munera M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gine A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Cultivation of Cucumis melo is hampered by soil stresses. Grafting is used to overcome these limitations. Different cucurbits belonging to several genera have been used as rootstocks for melons: Cucurbita, Lagenaria, Luffa, etc. However, negative effects on fruit quality appear in some rootstock-scion combinations. The selection of new resistant rootstocks that do not cause this negative impact in quality is necessary to improve melon cultivation. In this work, we evaluated two rootstocks, closer genetically to melon scions than those usually employed: a) an F1 hybrid between a commercial melon (C. melo subspecies melo var. inodorus market class Piel de Sapo) and one exotic accession (C. melo subspecies agrestis var. chinensis) with resistance to Monosporacus cannonballus, the causal agent of melon vine decline, and with a certain level of tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2, that causes Fusarium wilt, and b) an accession of Cucumis metuliferus, highly resistant to M. cannonballus, F. oxysporum 1.2 and evaluated and classified as highly resistant to Meloidogyne spp. in this work. Grafting compatibility of these two selected genotypes with commercial melons was good. All grafted plants displayed higher vigour and earlier flowering than ungrafted plants. Fruits from plants grafted onto C. metuliferus showed similar quality than those from ungrafted/selfgrafted plants. However, fruits from plants grafted onto the F1 (inodorus × chinensis) had in this experiment lower brix degree than the ungrafted controls. The resistance to soil borne pathogens found in C. metuliferus and the good performance regarding plant development and fruit quality of the scions indicate that this species is a promising rootstock for melons.

Yahia Y.,Arid Lands Institute IRA | Hannachi H.,Institute Superieur Des Science Appliquees Et Of La Technology Of Gabes | Ferchichi A.,Arid Lands Institute IRA
Acta Botanica Gallica | Year: 2014

The genetic diversity of 13 Tunisian faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions, and the commercial variety "Aguadulce", were studied using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In comparison to RAPD markers, SSRs showed a higher level of polymorphism and greater information content, as assessed by the expected heterozygosity. One hundred and fourteen bands were amplified using six SSR primer combinations and 376 bands were observed using four RAPD primers. The percentages of polymorphic fragments were 100% and 60.63% for SSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The polymorphism information content, gene diversity and population differentiation test were 0.370, 0.490 and 0.746, respectively, for SSR markers and 0.319, 0.406 and 0.775 for RAPD markers. The correlation coefficients of similarity based on the Mantel test were statistically significant for the both marker systems used, but were higher for SSR data than for RAPD. Dendrogram topologies, conducted separately on polymorphic RAPD and SSR markers, showed minor differences in the grouping of accessions. The dendrogram based on combined RAPD and SSR data sets identified clustering of accessions according to their geographic diffusion. Collectively, these results will aid Tunisian faba bean germplasm management, conservation and breeding. © 2014 Société botanique de France.

Yahia Y.,Arid Lands Institute IRA | Hannachi H.,Arid Lands Institute IRA | Monforte A.J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Cockram J.,UK National Institute of Agricultural Botany | And 3 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2014

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Little is known about the genetic resources of faba bean in Southern Tunisia. In the present study, genetic diversity within Tunisian faba bean germplasms was investigated using 16 simple sequence repeat markers. In total, 50 alleles were detected. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 2 to 6, with an average of 3. Genetic diversity and polymorphism information content values averaged, respectively, 0.43 (range 0.34-0.51) and 0.36 (range 0.28-0.43). The mean heterozygosity value was 0.27. A model-based structure analysis based on neighbour-joining tree and factorial correspondence analysis revealed the presence of two subpopulations, consistent with the clustering based on genetic distance (GD). The overall F is value was 0.36, indicating the importance of selfing in these populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that the within-population genetic variance component was much higher than the between-population or between-subpopulation variance component. The genetic relationships based on Nei's GD revealed that AGD (Aguadulce) and SAG (Super Aguadulce) and TF1 and TF2 (Tafartassa-Gafsa) were the most closely related populations. Assessment of genetic variation within faba bean populations will be informative for the conservation of germplasms and the implementation of effective breeding programmes in Tunisia. © 2014 NIAB.

Sanchez-Torres P.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Raigon M.D.,Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería | Gammoudi N.,Arid Lands Institute IRA | Gisbert C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Fruits | Year: 2016

Introduction. Interest in grafting onto rootstocks resistant to soil-borne pathogens has risen since the phasing-out of methyl bromide, an efficient soil disinfectant. In this study, we have evaluated the putative effect of rootstock-scion combinations on pepper fruit nutritional quality in relation to grafting, an effect that is sometimes overlooked. Materials and methods. As the scions, we used two representative sweet pepper cultivars, 'Almuden' and 'Coyote', and as rootstocks 'Foc' and 'Charlot', both resistant to Phytophthora capsici and Meloidogyne incognita. Dry matter, soluble solids, proteins, phenolics, and vitamin C content, as well as eight minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were measured in fruits from non-grafted, self-grafted, and grafted plants. Results and discussion. Differences in the fruit composition were found, depending on the genotype, rootstock, or rootstock-scion combination. The main effects were as follows. Higher values of °Brix, phenolics, P, Mg, and Na were found in the fruit of 'Coyote' whereas the vitamin C and Fe levels were higher in 'Almuden' fruit. The dry matter, protein, and K concentrations were higher in the fruit from grafted plants with respect to the values from non-grafted plants, especially in the fruit from plants grafted onto 'Charlot' and 'Foc' rootstocks (increases of 11.8%, 17.6%, and 9.6%, respectively; when average values of the four combinations of these rootstocks). Fruit from 'Almuden' and 'Coyote' plants grafted onto the rootstock 'Foc' had lower °Brix values (about one degree less than the control) and lower values of phenolics were also obtained when used this rootstock (14.4% less than for the control). On the other hand, the P concentration was higher in the fruit of 'Coyote' grafted onto 'Charlot' (17.2% higher than for the control). This combination also exhibited the highest fruit K concentration (226.70 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight). Conclusion. From a nutritional point of view it is important to evaluate and select the best rootstock-scion combinations: in our assay, this was 'Charlot'-'Coyote' the fruit of which showed the highest °Brix and K, P, and protein concentrations. © 2016 Cirad/EDP Sciences.

Peiro R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Gammoudi N.,Arid Lands Institute IRA | Yuste A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Olmos A.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Gisbert C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

The conservation of old grapevine varieties is important since they are adapted to specific climate conditions and may carry genes interesting to breeders. As virus infection is common in grapevine varieties, the use of virus free materials is of great importance. In this work, we used somatic embryogenesis for the sanitation of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses that were found after analyzing the putative presence of the five most common, economically important grape viruses by real-time multiplex RT-PCR in the old cultivar “Grumet Negre”. Unopened and opened inflorescences, fecundated ovaries, and, also, mature seeds were used as starting explants. Explants were cultured on plates with two embryogenesis induction media (Nitsch & McCown Woody plant medium) that contained the growth regulator thidiazuron and differed in their salt and vitamin compositions. One half of each kind of explant was cut prior to being cultured. After five months of culture, embryos had only developed from seeds that were cut previous to sowing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mature seeds have been used for inducing embryogenesis in grape. A total of 42% of the embryos transferred to tubes for germination regenerated into normal plantlets. The absence of both the GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses in all regenerated plants was confirmed by real-time uniplex RT-PCR. So, this protocol can be used for sanitation and also for micropropagation. © 2015 INIA.

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