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El-Sherbiny I.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | El-Sherbiny I.M.,Mansoura University | Abdel-Hamid M.I.,Mansoura University | Rashad M.,Arid Lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

In the present study, various grades of sodium alginates were extracted from different brown macroalgae and their characteristics were investigated using FTIR, UV-vis and EA. The alginates were used in combination with different proportions of calcareous soil to develop new composite microparticles as potential sorbents for efficient uptake of Fe(III), Mn(II) and As(V) from water. Under the investigated conditions (1 g of composite equilibrated in 100 ml of standard metal ion solution), the composites have removed almost 100% of Fe(III) in the concentration range of 0.5-16.0 mg l-1. Soil, alginate and composites exhibited the highest removal (about 89%) of Mn(II) at 0.5 mg l -1. Reasonable removal efficiency (50-60%) was recorded at 0.5 mg l-1 of As(V) whereas, increasing the initial As(V) concentration resulted in marked decrease in removal efficiency. The collected equilibrium data were also fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for all the developed composites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Azalle A.I.M.,Arid Lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | Mohammed Z.S.,Arid Lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | Ebeid A.E.B.,Alexandria University | Saleh El-Saied O.,Alexandria University
American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture | Year: 2014

The study aimed to identify the current situation of Egyptian exports in general and agriculture in particular, and its competitive position for the purpose of expansion in the volume of exports in the current markets as well as open new markets through increased their competitiveness ability aiming to achieve increased yield from agricultural exports that can be contributed to the creation of economic development and the study of the most important factors that affect on agricultural exportation. The study was based on the style of economic analysis descriptive, quantitative style and standard economic analysis to achieve their goals. The equation of simple regression was used to identify the general trend of economic phenomena under study. The analysis of regression was useful to know the most important economic variables that affecting agricultural exports and it has been relying on some indicators to judge the efficiency of foreign trade, and to study of international exchange rates of foreign trade and competitiveness indicators and studying the coefficient of concentration commodity of agricultural exports From studying the economic features of Egyptian cotton crop, it was indicated that there is a considerable variation of both produced and consumed quantities, which leads to the fluctuation and reduction in the amount of cotton exported during the study period. Exports of Egyptian cotton have been contributed by about 41.9% from the total agriculture exportation during the study period. Studying the geographical distribution indicated that the big importers in the world during the period of 2000 to 2010 were India, Japan, China, Turkey, Italy, Indonesia and Thailand, but exports to these countries were unstable; therefore there is a hard need to improve the quality of Egyptian exports in order to be able to compete in global markets. The study proved that the most important countries competing Egyptian cotton exporting were the United States, Uzbekistan, Australia, Greece and Syria. By studying the competitiveness of Egyptian cotton exports during the period of the study, it was clearly that there is a decline in exports of Egyptian cotton, indicating that the country did not rely on the exportation of cotton as a good resource of foreign currency that can be used to compensate the deficiency in commercial balance. There is also a competitive merit for Egyptian cotton exportations but it was hesitated, therefore it was necessary to work on the development of Egyptian cotton exports to maintain that merit. The study noticed that exportation of Egyptian cotton had a big size share in the following country India, Italy and Japan, but due to the instability of this market share, it is obligatory to expand our exports to these markets and to open new markets in other countries. It was shown also that by studying the commodity concentration of our Egyptian cotton exports, it is indication that there was variation in our agricultural exports and it was reached the highest value (79.5%) in 2003. © 2014 AENSI PUBLISHER All rights reserved.

Azalle A.I.M.,Arid Lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | Mohammed Z.S.,Arid Lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | Ebeid A.E.B.,Alexandria University | El-Saied Saleh O.,Alexandria University
American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture | Year: 2014

A study of the economic side of the Orange Egyptian crop Egyptian that the annual rate of increase in production over annual rate of increase in consumption, which gives the opportunity for the existence of surplus for export, where the contribution of Egyptian exports orange in agricultural exports about 6.5 during the study period [1], showing the geographical distribution the main importing countries of Orange Egyptian average of the period 2000 - 2010 that Saudi Arabia and the UAE, the most important Arab countries imported, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands were the most important countries of the European Union, and the most important exporting countries and competition for the orange Egypt during the study period were Spain and the United States, South Africa, Morocco and Greece, and the study found competitiveness of the orange Egypt during the study period, the failure to adopt the state 's exports oranges to improve agricultural product as a result of the instability of exports, where it was found and a competitive advantage for Egypt 's exports of oranges, but as a result of the fluctuation in the values of coefficient of comparative advantage was necessary to work on the development of Egyptian exports of oranges to maintain this feature, it turns out that the most important export markets, which Egypt's highest share markets were Saudi Arabia and lower share market to Egypt was in the United Kingdom, and to study the coefficient of concentration commodity exports orange Egyptian show a diversity in agricultural exports during the period 2000 - 2010 where it reached the highest diversity of about 15, 4% in 2010, so it must maintain the traditional markets for Orange Egyptian and work to open new markets, and were the most important factors affecting the Orange Egyptian exports during the study period were domestic production and the average world price. © 2014 AENSI PUBLISHER All rights reserved.

Rashad M.,Arid Lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | Dultz S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Guggenberger G.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Geoderma | Year: 2010

The sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on surfaces of soil particles strongly depends on surface charge (SC). As anions and cations in soil solution affect SC, the sorption properties can also be modified by electrolytes. This issue is particularly important in alkaline soils. In order to describe the effect of electrolyte type on SC properties and DOM sorption we comparatively investigated in column and batch experiments the release and retention behaviors of DOM of a Vertisol from the Nile River Delta. As electrolytes we have chosen NaCl, Na2SO4, and CaCl2, which are commonly found in soil solution. CaSO4 was included to investigate the effect of gypsum application to the soil on the tested factors. The SC of the clay fraction was quantified at the initial soil pH of 8.3 at electrolyte concentrations of 0-10mmolcl-1 and a DOM application between 0 and 25mg DOCl-1. The kind of anion had strong effects on SC of the clay fraction. At 10mmolcL-1 the SC was -2.6 and -4.1mmolckg-1 for NaCl and Na2SO4, respectively. Strong negative SC at presence of Na2SO4 led to repulsive forces, which hindered the sorption of DOM on clay particles and induced high DOM release in column experiments. At 10mmolcl-1 concentration of CaCl2 and CaSO4, the values of SC were -0.9 and -0.7mmolckg-1, respectively, indicating that Ca2+ is much stronger adsorbed than SO42- under the alkaline conditions. In the DOM-clay system, most negative SC values were obtained in deionized water as compared to the electrolyte solutions, indicating that in the absence of electrolytes the strongest repulsive forces hindered the sorption of DOM on clay particles. The sorbed amounts of DOM on fine soil were large not only for both CaCl2 and CaSO4 electrolytes, but also for NaCl electrolyte with almost the same values. The fact that NaCl increased DOM sorption can be explained by soluble Ca2+ and ion exchange as distinct amounts of Ca2+ were released during percolation from the sample which stabilize DOM by Ca2+ bridging. Despite some negative impact of applied SO42- on stable aggregation and DOM leaching, for agricultural practice the application of CaSO4 is superior to that of CaCl2, since the former removes Na+ more efficiently. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Abd Elsalam H.E.,Taif University | Abd Elsalam H.E.,Arid lands Cultivation and Development Research Institute | Bahobail A.S.,Taif University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

Lignin next to cellulose, it is the second most abundant compound in the plant biomass. Partial decay of lignin provides numerous monomers that have attracted attention as renewable resources of certain chemicals traditionally derived from petroleum. Bioconversion of lignin is one of the most important trends in biotechnology. Decomposition of the lignin-cellulose complex in fodder plants improves the digestibility and nutritional value of the materials for livestock feeding, enriching it with physiologically active substances. The objective of this research was to biodegradation of lignin, where found in pulp mill effluent (450 mg/l) and agriculture wastes: Leaves tree, corn stalks and wheat straw by selected strains of thermophilic bacteria and optimize physiological conditions required for better lignin degradation by bacteria. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in L-MSM (1g KL/L. MSM) at pH 7.5. Kraft lignin (KL) concentration is greater than that found in pulp mill effluent (450 mg/l). Samples were withdrawn periodically at one day intervals for seven days and determine the bacterial growth, reduction of colour and residual KL content. It was found that, colour reduction ratio for the best two thermophilic strains Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis were 86.6 and 75.4 %, respectively and lignin degradation ratio were 73.0, and 64.2 %, respectively.

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