Arid Land Institute

Medenine, Tunisia

Arid Land Institute

Medenine, Tunisia
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Boukhris-Bouhachem S.,Plant Protection Laboratory of National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunisia | Ben Fekih I.,Plant Protection Laboratory of National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunisia | Nahdi S.,Arid Land Institute | Souissi R.,Plant Protection Laboratory of National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunisia
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2017

The study was carried out to investigate the ability of three aphids, Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii and Aphis spiraecola, to acquire and retain the Potato Virus Y (PVY) isolate, PVYNTN. Tobacco plants, Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi, were used as test plant for the virus inoculation and aphid acquisition. The serological test double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied for virus detection on the test plants and aphids. Furthermore, virus retention by aphids was also assessed using a monoclonal anti-PVYN. Although a duration of 2 min was enough for the virus acquisition, the three tested aphids showed different capacities to retain PVYNTN. The retention of PVYNTN was 3 h for M. persicae and A. spiraecola, and 2 h for A. gossypii. This study provides basic information of the virus retention by potato-colonizing aphid species, which may increase our understanding of PVY epidemiology in Tunisia. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Sboui A.,Arid Land Institute | Sboui A.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Techno biology | Khorchani T.,Arid Land Institute | Djegham M.,Laboratory of Physiology and Therapeutic | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs and to follow this effect at three doses of milk. Firstly, three groups of dogs were used: two groups composed each of four diabetic dogs and receiving raw camel milk (treatment 1) or cow milk (treatment 2), and four healthy dogs getting raw camel milk (treatment 3) were used as control. Each animal was treated with 500 ml of milk daily. Secondly, we compared the effects of three amounts of camel milk: 100 ml, 250 ml and 500 ml to treat the diabetic dogs. After week 3, the dogs treated with camel milk showed a statistically significant decrease in blood glucose (from 10.88 ± 0.55 to 6.22 ± 0.5 mmol/l) and total protein concentrations (from 78.16 ± 2.61 g/l to 63.63 ± 4.43 g/l). For cholesterol levels, there was a decrease from week 2 (from 6.17 ± 0.5 mmol/l to 4.79 ± 0.5 mmol/l). There were no significant difference in blood glucose, cholesterol or total protein concentrations in dogs drinking 250 and 500 ml of camel milk. The dogs treated with 100 ml of camel milk did not show any significant decrease in blood glucose levels, and cholesterol and total protein concentrations. The investigation was not limited to the improvement in glycemic balance, lipids and proteins control in diabetic dogs getting camel milk, but we also noted a stability of this state after the dogs stopped to drink milk. This effect depended on the quantity of camel milk used to treat diabetic dogs. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Ghaffari S.,Arid Land Institute | Hasnaoui N.,University of Liège | Zinelabidine L.H.,University of La Rioja | Ferchichi A.,Arid Land Institute | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2013

Nine nuclear microsatellite (SSR) markers were used to characterize 35 wild grapevines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris) prospected from northwestern Tunisia and 64 cultivated accessions (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) maintained in the repository of the Arid Land Institute of Medenine (Tunisia). All analyzed SSR loci were polymorphic, revealing 62 distinct genotypes, including 31 cultivated and 31 wild accessions. Some cases of synonymies, color sports, and homonymies were detected as well as matches with previously analyzed Tunisian samples and international cultivars. Chloroplast microsatellite analyses showed that chlorotype A was most abundant in wild samples (65%), whereas chlorotypes C and D were more frequent in cultivated genotypes (45% and 23% respectively). Genotypic analysis showed that both Tunisian wild and cultivated samples maintain high levels of genetic variation and high average posterior probabilities of assignment to their group of origin. This is in agreement with the estimated low gene flow between cultivated and wild forms, revealing that most cultivated accessions do not derive directly from the local wild populations but could correspond to materials introduced from different locations or derived from spontaneous hybridizations among them. However, we could not discard the hypothesis that a few analyzed samples could arise from hybridization events between wild and cultivated grapevines. © 2013 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.

Ghaffari S.,Arid Land Institute | Hasnaoui N.,University of Liège
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Microsatellites (SSRs) are the most informative and popular class of molecular markers used for diverse purposes, particularly in plants: genetic diversity study, marker assisted selection, breeding, mapping, phylogenetics and phylogeography, systematics, etc. They have become a routine technique practically in each laboratory for studying molecular plant genetics. Despite their wide utilization, however, setup and optimization of various conditions involved in PCR amplification is a prerequisite for reliable inference of results. In this chapter, we describe optimization of SSR-PCR conditions and give ranges of concentrations for different parameters. The protocol provided here is inspired from bench work on the use of microsatellite to study diversity of Vitis vinifera germplasm. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013.

Gaddour A.,Arid Land Institute | Najari S.,Arid Land Institute | Abdennebi M.,Arid Land Institute
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2013

Up until now, the composition of goat's milk has not been well known. However, every day it is more and more evident that this milk is quite different from cows and other mammal's milk. This difference depends on a major concentration in some of milk elements. Caseins, in goat's milk are found in a minor concentration (their inner components have besides, different relative proportions). All these goat's milk qualities result in a different physicochemical composition which explains some of its characteristics and its very particular technological behaviour. They prevent also the associating goat's milk to cow's milk as it has been done until recently. The objective of this study is to determine the physicochemical composition quality of goat milk for its turn in flavored cheese. Indeed, goat's milk is a food interesting nutritional and dietary values. © Medwell Journals, 2013.

Gaddour A.,Arid Land Institute | Najari S.,Arid Land Institute
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2011

To identify some genetic specificities of goat meat production in southern Tunisia, 16 years data monitoring of 1687 kids' growth were analysed. Data distribution was studied to establish the performances regrouping pattern toward oasian breeding conditions depending on the kid's age. The average kid's weight was 3.11 and 13.14 kg, respectively at birth and at 90 days age. The standard deviation of those phenotypic varied largely between 0.78 and 3.25 kg, respectively at birth and at 3 months age. Thus, caprine data variation changes in relation to the phenotype. Environmental harsh conditions prevent the complete expression of the better animal genotypes. © Medwell Journals, 2011.

Najari S.,Arid Land Institute | Gaddour A.,Arid Land Institute | Glley K.,Arid Land Institute
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

Six non-linear models; Brody, Logistic, Gompertz, Janoschek, Von Bertalanffy and Polynomial equations were tested to identify the suitable model to adjust the growth curve of local kid's under pastoral conditions in Southern Tunisian. Data base issued from 10 years periodical weighing was used to adjust growth model. All models' parameters were estimated by an iterative non linear regression procedure. Various data subsets were used to test models convergence behavior and accuracy towards data structure variation. Models evaluation criteria were the iterations number (NI), the coefficient of determination (CD) and the residuals means squares (RMS). Gompertz model allowed the best kid's growth model fitting by its convergence rapidity and parameters estimation accuracy with all data subsets. Using all observed data, the convergence point (10 -s) was reached after 9 iterations at a CD equal to 67%. So, arid environmental factors affect bothquantitatively and qualitatively the kids' growth curve assessment and shape through their impacts on the data, file structure. The suitable model remains a crucial step to handle local goat characterization and genetic improvement under harsh conditions.

Najari S.,Arid Land Institute | Gaddour A.,Arid Land Institute | Abdennebi M.,Arid Land Institute
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2013

Data issued from a weighing protocol of 722 kids during four years was analysed to establish the impacts of non-genetic factors upon kids weights at some standard ages. A Gompertz model was applied to estimate kids weights at some standard ages 1, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. A GLM procedure and a means comparison test (SNK, α = 0.05) were applied to identify the statistical effects of some factors and their homogenous classes at several ages. The determination coefficient R2 remains lower than 87% of all studied traits due to the observed data structure. All traits seem to be affected (P<0.001 or 0.05) by the factors related to the restrictions and the irregularities of the technical and natural environment of pastoral husbandry. The non-genetic factors impact increases with kids age and requirements. Growth traits varied depending to the natural and technical factors which illustrates the local population genetic response towards environmental resources in arid zone. The year and zone factors play an important role upon the kid's weight and it evolution till 6 months age due to the large inter-annual variation of rainfall. Also the technical level of the herder seems affecting highly the kids performances. Therefore, arid environment affects both quantitatively and qualitatively individual kid's growing behaviour and have to be considered for local goat rational genetic improvement modelling and planning. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Gaddour A.,Arid Land Institute | Najari S.,Arid Land Institute | Ouni M.,Arid Land Institute
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

From 1980, the development project within the framework of genetic improvement achieved significant progress through crossbreeding of local goats with imported improver races at the Institute of the Arid Areas of Medenine. This article summarizes the performances of the various genotypes produced since 1980. The crossing between these goat races appreciably improved the performances of growth and milk production of the local goat of the southern Tunisia since the first generation. The mean weights of kids were 3.49 kg at birth and 15.78 kg at 120 days age. The Damascus race presented the best performances of growth of the kids. The milk production with the first generation reached about 248 kg per lactation for the Alpine one, 181 kg for Damascus and 190 kg for Murciana while the local race produced only 137 kg. Despite the improvement of the growth and milk production traits, it seems that this crossing appears to have negative affect on reproductive performances. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Ghaffari S.,Arid Land Institute | Ferchichi A.,Arid Land Institute
Romanian Biotechnological Letters | Year: 2011

The diversity of the local grapevine varietal set of Tunisia was remarkably noted in areas of Sfax, Kerkennah, Gabès, Tozeur, Nafta, Dégache, Zarzis and Djerba. Some varieties showed interesting characteristics concerning the production quality, its lateness and its fitness to take on tree, and its adaptation to various Tunisian pedoclimatic conditions. In an attempt to explore the genetic diversity of 30 autochthonous grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, the study of foliar morphology (colour, number of lobes, shape of blade, shape of the teeth, size) and the determination of leaves composition on major mineral elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) have been carried out in order to assess the intercultivars variability and its structuring in this collection. Data analysis by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering have proved that some of these parameters were designed suitable to discriminate significantly few cultivars (ARCz, TURm, SABm, MITm...). Comparison of UPGMA dendrograms of morphological and mineral content parameters using the Mantel test indicated no significant correlation (r = 0.036). The recorded variability could be explained by genetically differentiations and environmental factors influences. © 2011 University of Bucharest.

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