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Bohra A.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Jha U.C.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Kishor P.B.K.,Osmania University | Pandey S.,Arid forest Research Institute | Singh N.P.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

Pulses are multipurpose crops for providing income, employment and food security in the underprivileged regions, notably the FAO-defined low-income food-deficit countries. Owing to their intrinsic ability to endure environmental adversities and the least input/management requirements, these crops remain central to subsistence farming. Given their pivotal role in rain-fed agriculture, substantial research has been invested to boost the productivity of these pulse crops. To this end, genomic tools and technologies have appeared as the compelling supplement to the conventional breeding. However, the progress in minor pulse crops including dry beans (Vigna spp.), lupins, lablab, lathyrus and vetches has remained unsatisfactory, hence these crops are often labeled as low profile or lesser researched. Nevertheless, recent scientific and technological breakthroughs particularly the next generation sequencing (NGS) are radically transforming the scenario of genomics and molecular breeding in these minor crops. NGS techniques have allowed de novo assembly of whole genomes in these orphan crops. Moreover, the availability of a reference genome sequence would promote re-sequencing of diverse genotypes to unlock allelic diversity at a genome-wide scale. In parallel, NGS has offered high-resolution genetic maps or more precisely, a robust genetic framework to implement whole-genome strategies for crop improvement. As has already been demonstrated in lupin, sequencing-based genotyping of the representative sample provided access to a number of functionally-relevant markers that could be deployed straight away in crop breeding programs. This article attempts to outline the recent progress made in genomics of these lesser explored pulse crops, and examines the prospects of genomics assisted integrated breeding to enhance and stabilize crop yields. © 2014 Elsevier Inc..


Tripathi G.,J N V University | Deora R.,J N V University | Singh G.,Arid forest Research Institute
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2013

Studies to understand litter processes and soil properties are useful for maintaining pastureland productivity as animal husbandry is the dominant occupation in the hot arid region. We aimed to quantify how micro-habitats and combinations of litters of the introduced leguminous tree Colophospermum mopane with the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris or Lasiurus sindicus influence decomposition rate and soil nutrient changes in a hot desert silvopasture system. Litter bags with tree litter alone (T), tree+C.ciliaris in 1:1 ratio (TCC) and tree+L.sindicus 1:1 ratio (TLS) litter were placed inside and outside of the C.mopane canopy and at the surface, 3-7cm and 8-12cm soil depths. We examined litter loss, soil fauna abundance, organic carbon (SOC), total (TN), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) nitrogen, phosphorus (PO4-P), soil respiration (SR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil adjacent to each litter bag. After 12 months exposure, the mean residual litter was 40.2% of the initial value and annual decomposition rate constant (k) was 0.98 (0.49-1.80). Highest (p<0.01) litter loss was in the first four months, when faunal abundance, SR, DHA and humidity were highest but it decreased with time. These variables and k were highest under the tree canopies. The litter loss and k were highest (p<0.01) in TLS under the tree canopy, but the reverse trend was found for litter outside the canopy. Faunal abundance, litter loss, k, nutrient release and biochemical activities were highest (p<0.01) in the 3-7cm soil layer. Positive correlations of litter loss and soil fauna abundance with soil nutrients, SR and DHA demonstrated the interactions of litter quality and micro-habitats together with soil fauna on increased soil fertility. These results suggest that a Colophospermum mopane and L.sindicus silvopasture system best promotes faunal abundance, litter decomposition and soil fertility. The properties of these species and the associated faunal resources may be utilised as an ecosystem-restoration strategy in designing a silvopasture system. This may help to control land degradation and increase productivity sustainably in this environment. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Rathore M.,Arid forest Research Institute
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2010

In arid and semi-arid areas where prevalence of droughts and famines is a recurring feature, forest cover can in general make valuable contributions to food security and provide income to the rural poor. Protein and calorie malnutrition is widespread in these areas leading to high child mortality rate. Plant species can play an important role in overcoming this by being used as a source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC), a highly nutritious food. LPC should be considered seriously as it can serve as an additional protein source in the case of non-ruminants and man, especially in drought prone areas. The use of LPC in developing countries as an alternative protein source to fishmeal in broiler diet holds tremendous promise as it can substantially lower high cost of fishmeal and eventually the acute shortage of animal protein supply. Potential tropical plants for LPC production have been evaluated and selected for further research by United States Department of Agriculture. The present study was aimed to determine the potential of arid zone plants for preparation of LPC. Extraction characteristics of the several plant species have been studied and the quality of LPC prepared from them was investigated. Different fractions, chloroplastic and cytoplasmic proteins, were analyzed for their crude protein contents. Analysis of LPC shows considerable differences in their protein contents, which was found to range from 13.7 to 88.9. Based on this, Achyranthes aspera and Tephrosia purpurea were found to be the best suited plants for LPC preparation. © 2010 by Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.


Dhavala A.,Institute of Wood Science and Technology | Rathore T.S.,Arid forest Research Institute
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2010

Micropropagation of Embelia ribes was achieved through proliferation of axillary shoots obtained from mature plants. Nodal shoot segments, collected March-May, exhibited high-frequency (75%) shoot initiation when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) at 1.13 μM and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 0.49 μM. Subculture of sprouted shoots from the original explants on medium containing TDZ (1.13 and 0.45 μM) during the first and second subcultures was found essential for further shoot proliferation, while inhibition of shoot elongation by TDZ could be overcome by transferring shoot cultures onto MS medium containing 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 11.10 μM) for the third subculture. Treating the explants with an antioxidant mixture of 568 μM ascorbic acid, 119 μM citric acid, and 307 μM glutathione prior to inoculation, coupled with subculture at 2-wk intervals onto fresh medium, both helped to reduce browning of the explants and facilitated production of five to six shoots/explant. MS medium supplemented with BAP (4.44 μM) and IBA (0.49 μM) induced shoot multiplication, producing five to six shoots/explant with a shoot length of 3 to 4 cm over a 4-wk culture period. Shoots of 3 to 4 cm in length exhibited 100% rooting within 4 wk after transfer to media containing half the nutrient salt concentration of MS medium with 3.69 μM IBA. Ex vitro rooting in the greenhouse from the in vitro shoots treated with 4.93 μM IBA for 30 min exhibited 95% rooting in soilrite™ medium in a 4-wk period. About 85% of micropropagated plants were established successfully in root trainers. Three-month-old, hardened plants could further be successfully established in the field. In 1 yr, by using the above protocol, 3,200 plants could be produced from a single shoot and 2,700 could be established in the field. © 2010 The Society for In Vitro Biology.


Kumar D.,Arid forest Research Institute | Mishra D.K.,Arid forest Research Institute
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014

We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conductivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids, α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 μS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 μS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 μS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids and α-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration increased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respectively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity of α-tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of storage). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancidity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deterioration of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concentrations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage duration increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemicals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots. © 2014 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Natural resource conservation and rehabilitation are the best options to control land degradation and enhance biomass for fodder and fuelwood. Rainwater harvesting structures viz. Contour trench (CT), gradonie (G), box trench (BT) and V-ditch (VD) with a control were prepared in <10%, 10-20% and >20% slopes and Acacia catechu L. seedlings were planted in August 2005 to enhance soil water, nutrient and biomass and to rehabilitate degraded hill. Soil pH, SOC and NH 4-N decreased while EC, NO 3-N and PO 4-P increased in June 2009. Soil water, nutrients, plant growth and biomass were highest (P < 0.05) in <10% and lowest in 10-20% slopes. Soil waters were 13 and 52% greater in >20 and <10% than in soil at 10-20% slope. The soil waters were 18, 16, 24 and 14% greater in CT, G, BT and VD treatments, respectively over control, which enhanced plant height and collar diameter in December 2009 over 2005. The highest growth and biomass were in CT and VD plots, respectively. Herbage biomass was highest (P < 0.05) in <10% slope in 2005, 10-20% slope in 2006/2008 and >20% slope in 2007/2009. Harvesting of rainwater increased herbage biomass by 24-71%, and was highest in VD plots. Conclusively, rainwater harvesting enhanced soil water, nutrients, vegetation covers and plant growth and biomass during restoration of degraded hills. Gradonie and CT/BT facilitated herbage and plant growth, respectively, whereas V-ditch was effective for both. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Parkash V.,Arid forest Research Institute | Sharma S.,Kurukshetra University | Aggarwal A.,Kurukshetra University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2011

The present investigation was undertaken to find out efficient strains of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi) alone or in combinations with Trichoderma viride for inoculation Dendrocalamus strictus L. seedlings. The inoculated seedlings showed good response having higher plant height, phosphorous ions content in root and shoot, AM spore number and root colonization than non-inoculated (control) seedlings in both single (alone) and co-inoculation (combined consortium) experiments. T. viride showed significant growth followed by Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum and mixed AM with single inoculation. In co-inoculation, the best growth responses were observed withG. fasciculatum + T. viride followed by G. mosseae + T. viride, mixed vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) +T. viride, G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum + T. viride + mixed VAM, G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum + T. viride andG. mosseae + G. fasciculatum after 120 days and also depicted maximum increase in phosphorus content of shoot and root when compared with other inoculated seedlings. However, all the inoculated seedlings showed significant increase in phosphorus content when compared with control seedlings.


Chaudhry P.,Arid forest Research Institute | Bohra N.K.,Arid forest Research Institute | Choudhary K.R.,Arid forest Research Institute
Land Use Policy | Year: 2011

Community forests/rangelands, called Orans and Gauchars in the western arid part of India, constitute a significant proportion of the total geographical area of the region. Given the economic importance of these areas from time immemorial, the local people took special care to protect and sustainably utilize these common property resources. However, these forests and rangelands have suffered severe degradation in the recent past. Rehabilitation of Orans and Gauchars needs proper planning and execution of a technically feasible package, tailored to suit their unique edaphic, climatic, vegetation, social and legal status. Keeping in view the vast potential of these areas to sustain large scale livestock farming for overall economic upliftment of the local population, there is an urgent need to rehabilitate these degraded areas in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Salient problems faced by these natural assets of western Rajasthan and strategies for their rehabilitation have been discussed in the paper. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh G.,Arid forest Research Institute | Bhati M.,Arid forest Research Institute | Rathod T.,Arid forest Research Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2010

Impacts of municipal effluent (ME) irrigation on soil physicochemical properties and its remediation by tree species were assessed with a view to utilize this resource in growing woodlot, controlling land degradation and improving environmental quality in suburban areas. Acacia nilotica L. (babool), Dalbergia sissoo L. (sissoo) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings planted in July 1998 were irrigated with ME at 1/2 PET (T 2), 1 PET (T 3), 2 PET (T 4), and with canal water at 1 PET (T 5). The control was soil without seedlings irrigated with ME at 1 PET (T 1). Application of ME increased minerals concentration from T 2 to T 4 in both soil and seedling in June 1999 and 2000. The increase in soil pH, EC, SOC was by <2.00-fold and availability of potassium (K), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) by >2-fold, NH 4-N by 10.44-fold and PO 4-P by 6.57-fold in T 4 than those in T 5 treatment in 2000. Available NH 4-N, PO 4-P, Mg and K were higher in 0-15cm soil layer but continued irrigation and low soil carbon influenced leaching of NO 3-N, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn resulting their higher concentrations in 60-90cm soil layer (P<0.01). Lower soil nutrients in T 3 than in T 1 suggested soil amelioration by the planted seedlings and because of lowest concentration of most of the nutrients E. camaldlensis showed highest soil amelioration capacity. But nutrient utilization efficiency was highest in A. nilotica for K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and Zn, D. sissoo for N and P, and E. camaldulensis for Mn. Thus, planting tree seedlings, particularly E. camaldulensis, under ecological amelioration could in this way help in controlling land degradation and enhancing biomass and aesthetic benefits, although long-term application of effluent would lead to mineral/salt accumulation in soil and plants. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Tewari V.P.,Arid forest Research Institute
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2010

This paper presents equations for estimating limiting stand density for T. undulata plantations grown in hot desert areas of Rajasthan State in India. Five different stand level basal area projection models, belonging to the path invariant algebraic difference form of a non-linear growth function, were also tested and compared. These models can be used to predict future basal area as a function of stand variables like dominant height and stem number per hectare and are necessary for reviewing different silvicultural treatment options. Data from 22 sample plots were used for modelling. An all possible growth intervals data structure was used. Both, qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to compare alternative models. The Akaike's information criteria difference statistic was used to analyze the predictive ability of the models. Results show that the model proposed by Hui and Gadow performed best and hence this model is recommended for use in predicting basal area development in T. undulata plantations in the study area. The data used were not from thinned stands, and hence the models may be less accurate when used for predictions when natural mortality is very significant. © Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

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