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Dhavala A.,Institute of Wood Science and Technology | Rathore T.S.,Arid forest Research Institute
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2010

Micropropagation of Embelia ribes was achieved through proliferation of axillary shoots obtained from mature plants. Nodal shoot segments, collected March-May, exhibited high-frequency (75%) shoot initiation when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) at 1.13 μM and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 0.49 μM. Subculture of sprouted shoots from the original explants on medium containing TDZ (1.13 and 0.45 μM) during the first and second subcultures was found essential for further shoot proliferation, while inhibition of shoot elongation by TDZ could be overcome by transferring shoot cultures onto MS medium containing 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 11.10 μM) for the third subculture. Treating the explants with an antioxidant mixture of 568 μM ascorbic acid, 119 μM citric acid, and 307 μM glutathione prior to inoculation, coupled with subculture at 2-wk intervals onto fresh medium, both helped to reduce browning of the explants and facilitated production of five to six shoots/explant. MS medium supplemented with BAP (4.44 μM) and IBA (0.49 μM) induced shoot multiplication, producing five to six shoots/explant with a shoot length of 3 to 4 cm over a 4-wk culture period. Shoots of 3 to 4 cm in length exhibited 100% rooting within 4 wk after transfer to media containing half the nutrient salt concentration of MS medium with 3.69 μM IBA. Ex vitro rooting in the greenhouse from the in vitro shoots treated with 4.93 μM IBA for 30 min exhibited 95% rooting in soilrite™ medium in a 4-wk period. About 85% of micropropagated plants were established successfully in root trainers. Three-month-old, hardened plants could further be successfully established in the field. In 1 yr, by using the above protocol, 3,200 plants could be produced from a single shoot and 2,700 could be established in the field. © 2010 The Society for In Vitro Biology. Source

Natural resource conservation and rehabilitation are the best options to control land degradation and enhance biomass for fodder and fuelwood. Rainwater harvesting structures viz. Contour trench (CT), gradonie (G), box trench (BT) and V-ditch (VD) with a control were prepared in <10%, 10-20% and >20% slopes and Acacia catechu L. seedlings were planted in August 2005 to enhance soil water, nutrient and biomass and to rehabilitate degraded hill. Soil pH, SOC and NH 4-N decreased while EC, NO 3-N and PO 4-P increased in June 2009. Soil water, nutrients, plant growth and biomass were highest (P < 0.05) in <10% and lowest in 10-20% slopes. Soil waters were 13 and 52% greater in >20 and <10% than in soil at 10-20% slope. The soil waters were 18, 16, 24 and 14% greater in CT, G, BT and VD treatments, respectively over control, which enhanced plant height and collar diameter in December 2009 over 2005. The highest growth and biomass were in CT and VD plots, respectively. Herbage biomass was highest (P < 0.05) in <10% slope in 2005, 10-20% slope in 2006/2008 and >20% slope in 2007/2009. Harvesting of rainwater increased herbage biomass by 24-71%, and was highest in VD plots. Conclusively, rainwater harvesting enhanced soil water, nutrients, vegetation covers and plant growth and biomass during restoration of degraded hills. Gradonie and CT/BT facilitated herbage and plant growth, respectively, whereas V-ditch was effective for both. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Parkash V.,Arid forest Research Institute | Sharma S.,Kurukshetra University | Aggarwal A.,Kurukshetra University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2011

The present investigation was undertaken to find out efficient strains of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi) alone or in combinations with Trichoderma viride for inoculation Dendrocalamus strictus L. seedlings. The inoculated seedlings showed good response having higher plant height, phosphorous ions content in root and shoot, AM spore number and root colonization than non-inoculated (control) seedlings in both single (alone) and co-inoculation (combined consortium) experiments. T. viride showed significant growth followed by Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum and mixed AM with single inoculation. In co-inoculation, the best growth responses were observed withG. fasciculatum + T. viride followed by G. mosseae + T. viride, mixed vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) +T. viride, G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum + T. viride + mixed VAM, G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum + T. viride andG. mosseae + G. fasciculatum after 120 days and also depicted maximum increase in phosphorus content of shoot and root when compared with other inoculated seedlings. However, all the inoculated seedlings showed significant increase in phosphorus content when compared with control seedlings. Source

Tripathi G.,iversity | Deora R.,iversity | Singh G.,Arid forest Research Institute
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2013

Studies to understand litter processes and soil properties are useful for maintaining pastureland productivity as animal husbandry is the dominant occupation in the hot arid region. We aimed to quantify how micro-habitats and combinations of litters of the introduced leguminous tree Colophospermum mopane with the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris or Lasiurus sindicus influence decomposition rate and soil nutrient changes in a hot desert silvopasture system. Litter bags with tree litter alone (T), tree+C.ciliaris in 1:1 ratio (TCC) and tree+L.sindicus 1:1 ratio (TLS) litter were placed inside and outside of the C.mopane canopy and at the surface, 3-7cm and 8-12cm soil depths. We examined litter loss, soil fauna abundance, organic carbon (SOC), total (TN), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) nitrogen, phosphorus (PO4-P), soil respiration (SR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil adjacent to each litter bag. After 12 months exposure, the mean residual litter was 40.2% of the initial value and annual decomposition rate constant (k) was 0.98 (0.49-1.80). Highest (p<0.01) litter loss was in the first four months, when faunal abundance, SR, DHA and humidity were highest but it decreased with time. These variables and k were highest under the tree canopies. The litter loss and k were highest (p<0.01) in TLS under the tree canopy, but the reverse trend was found for litter outside the canopy. Faunal abundance, litter loss, k, nutrient release and biochemical activities were highest (p<0.01) in the 3-7cm soil layer. Positive correlations of litter loss and soil fauna abundance with soil nutrients, SR and DHA demonstrated the interactions of litter quality and micro-habitats together with soil fauna on increased soil fertility. These results suggest that a Colophospermum mopane and L.sindicus silvopasture system best promotes faunal abundance, litter decomposition and soil fertility. The properties of these species and the associated faunal resources may be utilised as an ecosystem-restoration strategy in designing a silvopasture system. This may help to control land degradation and increase productivity sustainably in this environment. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Tewari V.P.,Arid forest Research Institute
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2010

This paper presents equations for estimating limiting stand density for T. undulata plantations grown in hot desert areas of Rajasthan State in India. Five different stand level basal area projection models, belonging to the path invariant algebraic difference form of a non-linear growth function, were also tested and compared. These models can be used to predict future basal area as a function of stand variables like dominant height and stem number per hectare and are necessary for reviewing different silvicultural treatment options. Data from 22 sample plots were used for modelling. An all possible growth intervals data structure was used. Both, qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to compare alternative models. The Akaike's information criteria difference statistic was used to analyze the predictive ability of the models. Results show that the model proposed by Hui and Gadow performed best and hence this model is recommended for use in predicting basal area development in T. undulata plantations in the study area. The data used were not from thinned stands, and hence the models may be less accurate when used for predictions when natural mortality is very significant. © Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010. Source

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