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Rozhkova E.A.,Argonne National Laboratory
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

This article reports on recent progress in the development of advanced nanoscale photoreactive, magnetic and multifunctional materials applicable to brain cancer diagnostics, imaging, and therapy, with an emphasis on the latest contributions and the novelty of the approach, along with the most promising emergent trends. This article reports on recent progress in the development of advanced nanoscale photoreactive, magnetic and multifunctional materials applicable to brain cancer diagnostics, imaging, and therapy, with an emphasis on the latest contributions and the novelty of the approach, along with the most promising emergent trends. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Lin X.-M.,Argonne National Laboratory
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

Critical photonic, electronic, and magnetic applications of two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices often require nanostructures in perfect single-crystal phases with long-range order and limited defects. Here we discovered a crystalline phase with quasi long range positional order for two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattice domains self-assembled at the liquid-air interface during droplet evaporation, using in situ time-resolved X-ray scattering along with rigorous theories on two dimensional crystal structures. Surprisingly, it was observed that drying these superlattice domains preserved only an orientational order but not a longrange positional order, also supported by quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy images. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Kuzmenko I.,Argonne National Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We report a structural study of cholesterol-DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn- glycero-3-phophocholine) monolayers using x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Reflectivity reveals that the vertical position of cholesterol relative to phospholipids strongly depends on its mole fraction (χCHOL). Moreover, we find that at a broad range of χCHOL cholesterol and DPPC form alloylike mixed domains of short-range order and the same stoichiometry as that of the film. Based on the data presented, we propose a new model of cholesterol-phospholipid organization in mixed monolayers. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Ilavsky J.,Argonne National Laboratory
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2012

Nika is an Igor Pro-based package for correction, calibration and reduction of two-dimensional area-detector data into one-dimensional data (lineouts). It is free (although the user needs a paid license for Igor Pro), open source and highly flexible. While typically used for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data, it can also be used for grazing-incidence SAXS data, wide-angle diffraction data and even small-angle neutron scattering data. It has been widely available to the user community since about 2005, and it is currently used at the SAXS instruments of selected large-scale facilities as their main data reduction package. It is, however, also suitable for desktop instruments when the manufacturers software is not available or appropriate. Since it is distributed as source code, it can be scrutinized, verified and modified by users to suit their needs. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved. Source


Liu G.,Argonne National Laboratory
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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