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do Carmo J.M.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | da Silva A.A.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Morgan J.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Jim Wang Y.-X.,Arete Therapeutics Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Background and aims: This study evaluated the responses to soluble epoxide hydrolase (s-EH) inhibition, an essential enzyme in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, on food intake, body weight and metabolic parameters in mice fed a high fat-high fructose diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. Methods and results: After 5 weeks of HFD, mice were divided into two groups: 1) s-EH inhibitor (AR9281, 200mg/kg/day by gavage twice daily), and 2) vehicle (0.3ml per gavage). Food intake, body weight, oxygen consumption (VO 2), carbon dioxide production (VCO 2), respiratory quotient (RQ), and motor activity were measured weekly for more 5 weeks. HFD increased body weight (37±1 vs. 26±1g), and plasma of glucose (316±8 vs. 188±27mg/dl), insulin (62.1±8.1 vs. 15.5±5.0μU/ml), and leptin levels (39.4±3.6 vs. 7.5±0.1ng/ml) while reducing VO 2, VCO 2 and motor activity. s-EH inhibition for 5 weeks decreased caloric intake by ∼32% and increased VO 2 by ∼17% (42.8±1.4 vs. 50.2±1.5ml/kg/min) leading to significant weight loss. Inhibition of s-EHi also caused significant reductions in plasma leptin levels and visceral fat content. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue was also elevated by ∼50% during s-EH inhibition compared to vehicle treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that s-EH inhibition with AR9281 promotes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing metabolic rate, and that increased UCP1 content may contribute to the increase in energy expenditure. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Liu Y.,University of California at San Francisco | Lu X.,University of California at San Francisco | Nguyen S.,University of California at San Francisco | Olson J.L.,University of California at San Francisco | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) catalyzes the conversion of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids into less active eicosanoids, and inhibitors of sEH have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Based on previous observations that sEH inhibition attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by modulating nuclear factor-κB signaling, we hypothesized that this strategy would also attenuate cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis. Inhibition of sEH with AR9273 [1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(1-methylsulfonyl-piperidin-4-ylurea)] reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis through mechanisms involving mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and by reducing reactive oxygen species. Renal mitochondrial Bax induction following cisplatin treatment was significantly decreased by treatment of mice with AR9273 and these antiapoptotic effects involved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Similar mechanisms contributed to reduced apoptosis in Ephx2-/- mice treated with cisplatin. Moreover, in pig kidney proximal tubule cells, cisplatin-induced mitochondrial trafficking of Bax and cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and oxidative stress are significantly attenuated in the presence of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Collectively, these in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate a role for EETs in limiting cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis. Inhibition of sEH represents a novel therapeutic strategy for protection against cisplatin-induced renal damage. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

Wang Y.-X.J.,Arete Therapeutics Inc. | Ulu A.,University of California at Davis | Zhang L.-N.,MuriGenics Inc. | Hammock B.,University of California at Davis
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2010

Like many eicosanoids, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have multiple biological functions, including reduction of blood pressure, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in multiple species. Hydration of EETs by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is the major route of their degradation to the less bioactive diols. Inhibition of the sEH stabilizes EETs, thus, enhancing the beneficial effects of EETs. Human data show an association of sEH (Ephx2) gene polymorphisms with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of sEH inhibitors (sEHI) in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Indeed, two laboratories reported independently that using different sEHIs in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice significantly attenuated atherosclerosis development and aneurysm formation. The antiatherosclerotic effects of sEHI are correlatedwith elevation in EET levels and associated with reduction of low-density lipoprotein and elevation of highdensity lipoprotein cholesterols, as well as attenuation of expression of proinflammatory genes and proteins. In addition, the antihypertensive effects and improvement of endothelial function also contribute to the mechanism of the antiatherosclerotic effects of sEHI. The broad spectrum of biological action of EETs and sEHIs with multiple biological beneficial actions provides a promising new class of therapeutics for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. © The Author(s) 2010. Source

Ingraham R.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gless R.D.,Arete Therapeutics Inc. | Lo H.Y.,Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Epoxyeicosanoids, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, are signaling molecules which appear to help ameliorate the effects of a wide variety of pathological conditions. The enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes these molecules by converting them to their corresponding vicinal diols. Inhibition of sEH either by knockout or chemical inhibitors increases epoxyeicosanoid levels in vivo and provides significant organ protection in models of brain, cardiac, and renal injury. sEH also appears to be involved in modulating inflammation, pain pathways, pulmonary function, hypertension, and diabetes. Potent sEH inhibitors have been developed in academic, pharmaceutical, and biotech laboratories and described in the patent and scientific literature. Most of the inhibitor scaffolds employ a urea or amide which functions as an active-site transition state mimic. Arête Therapeutics compound AR9281 successfully completed phase Ia and Ib studies. A phase IIa proof of concept trial for treatment of impaired glucose tolerance has been completed, but the results are not yet reported. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Liu Y.,University of California at San Francisco | Webb H.K.,Arete Therapeutics Inc. | Fukushima H.,University of California at San Francisco | Micheli J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Acute kidney injury is associated with a significant inflammatory response that has been the target of renoprotection strategies. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are anti-inflammatory cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids that are abundantly produced in the kidney and metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH; Ephx2) to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Genetic disruption of Ephx2 and chemical inhibition of sEH were used to test whether the anti-inflammatory effects of EETs, and other lipid epoxide substrates of sEH, afford protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. EET hydrolysis was significantly reduced in Ephx2(-/-) mice and was associated with an attenuation of cisplatin-induced increases in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Histological evidence of renal tubular damage and neutrophil infiltration was also reduced in the Ephx2(-/-) mice. Likewise, cisplatin had no effect on renal function, neutrophil infiltration, or tubular structure and integrity in mice treated with the potent sEH inhibitor 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(1-methylsulfonyl- piperidin-4-yl-urea) (AR9273). Consistent with the ability of EETs to interfere with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, the observed renoprotection was associated with attenuation of renal NF-κB activity and corresponding decreases in the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, TNF receptor (TNFR) 1, TNFR2, and intercellular adhesive molecule-1 before the detection of tubular injury. These data suggest that EETs or other fatty acid epoxides can attenuate cisplatin-induced kidney injury and sEH inhibition is a novel renoprotective strategy. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

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