Area of Crop Protection andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA

Spain

Area of Crop Protection andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA

Spain

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Gkizi D.,Agricultural University of Athens | Santos-Rufo A.,Area of Crop Protection andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA | Rodriguez-Jurado D.,Area of Crop Protection andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA | Paplomatas E.J.,Agricultural University of Athens | Tjamos S.E.,Agricultural University of Athens
Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Little is known about the role of plant primary metabolism in defence against pathogens. The present study is the first investigation published that examines the role of β-amylase (BAM) genes upon fungal, Verticillium dahliae, infection. The responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants impaired in BAM1, BAM2, BAM3, BAM4 genes, along with double, triple and quadruple mutants of those genes, were used to explore the involvement of BAM in the host plant-V. dahliae interaction. Less severe symptoms were recorded in bam mutants compared to wild type. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that the decrease in symptom severity shown in bam plants was correlated with reductions in the growth of the pathogen in the plants. Confocal microscopy of the most and least susceptible bam mutants and the wildtype plants showed that there were no differences between them in the number of attached conidia and penetration sites on the roots. BAM1, BAM2 and BAM3 expression was altered upon V. dahliae infection in the aerial tissues of the wild type. Analysis by qPCR of the PR1 and PDF1.2 expression in the bam3, bam1234, bam14 and wildtype plants showed that PR1 was up-regulated in the roots of bam plants upon V. dahliae infection. © 2015 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Santos-Rufo A.,Area of Crop Protection andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA | Rodriguez-Jurado D.,Area of Crop Protection andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

Irrigation water disinfestation is an unexplored option for reducing Verticillium dahliae inoculum in water and consequently for more efficiently managing Verticillium wilts in Andalusia. We assessed Suppressive Efficacy (SE; water was infested and subsequently treated) and Preventive Efficacy (PE; previously treated water was subsequently inoculated) of OX-VIRIN®, OX-AGUA AL 25® and Deccoklor® in reducing water infestations by V. dahliae conidia. Five concentrations of each disinfestant, the lowest three being recommended by the manufacturer, were tested in vitro against six V. dahliae isolates. Validation assays were carried out in experiments under natural environmental conditions in spring. The four highest concentrations of OX-VIRIN® (0.8-51.2 mL L-1), the three highest of OX-AGUA AL 25® (46.4-417.5 μL L-1) and the two highest of Deccoklor® (0.375 and 3.75 mL L-1), showed an in vitro-efficacy (SE and PE) of 96.2, 80.0 and 100.0% after 30, 5 to 30 and 15 days respectively. Therefore, recommended concentrations for OX-VIRIN® and OX-AGUA AL 25® showed a greater in vitro-effectiveness than those recommended for Deccoklor®. Assays in natural environmental conditions proved that OX-VIRIN® at the recommended concentration of 3.2-mL L-1, applied every 28 days to water, was the most effective treatment (SE and PE), with a 100% reduction of the average relative viability after 56 days. Other chemical treatments showing high in vitro-efficacy, such as OX-VIRIN® at 0.8 mL L-1 and OX-AGUA AL 25® at 46.4 μL L-1 showed an SE of 99.9% after 14 and 28 days when applied every 28 and 14 days, respectively. However, PE of OX-AGUA AL 25® at 46.4 μL L-1 was only 59 and 38% after 28 and 14 days respectively, depending on the experiment. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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