Trinidad, Uruguay
Trinidad, Uruguay

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Delgado J.V.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Martinez A.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Alvarez L.A.,National University of Colombia | Armstrong E.,Area Genetica | And 27 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

Genetic diversity in and relationships among 26 Creole cattle breeds from 10 American countries were assessed using 19 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, F-statistics estimates, genetic distances, multivariate analyses and assignment tests were performed. The levels of within-breed diversity detected in Creole cattle were considerable and higher than those previously reported for European breeds, but similar to those found in other Latin American breeds. Differences among breeds accounted for 8.4% of the total genetic variability. Most breeds clustered separately when the number of pre-defined populations was 21 (the most probable K value), with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. Despite the high genetic diversity detected, significant inbreeding was also observed within some breeds, and heterozygote excess was detected in others. These results indicate that Creoles represent important reservoirs of cattle genetic diversity and that appropriate conservation measures should be implemented for these native breeds in order to minimize inbreeding and uncontrolled crossbreeding. © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

Armstrong E.,Area Genetica | Leizagoyen C.,Servicios Veterinarios | Martinez A.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Delgado J.V.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Postiglioni A.,Area Genetica
Zoo Biology | Year: 2011

The African antelope Addax nasomaculatus is a rare mammal at high risk of extinction, with no more than 300 individuals in the wild and 1,700 captive animals distributed in zoos around the world. In this work, we combine genetic data and genealogical information to assess the structure and genetic diversity of a captive population located at Parque Lecocq Zoo (N=27), originated from only two founders. We amplified 39 microsatellites previously described in other Artiodactyls but new to this species. Seventeen markers were polymorphic, with 2-4 alleles per locus (mean=2.71). Mean expected heterozygosity (He) per locus was between 0.050 (marker ETH3) and 0.650 (marker D5S2), with a global He of 0.43. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the population computed from pedigree records of all registered individuals (N=53) was 0.222. The mean coancestry of the population was 0.298 and F IS index was -0.108. These results reflect the importance of an adequate breeding management on a severely bottlenecked captive population, which would benefit by the incorporation of unrelated individuals. Thanks to the successful amplification of a large number of microsatellites commonly used in domestic bovids, this study will provide useful information for the management of this population and serve as future reference for similar studies in other captive populations of this species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc..

PubMed | Area Genetica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Research in veterinary science | Year: 2010

The Robertsonian translocation rob(1;29) is the most important chromosomal abnormality in cattle. It has been demonstrated that carriers of this chromosomal alteration exhibit reduced fertility due to an early embryonic loss. In the present study we analyzed the effects of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza-C) on metaphase lymphocytes from Uruguayan Creole cows carrying the rob(1;29). The analysis was focused on the chromatin structure of rob(1;29) comparing it to active and inactive BTAX chromosomes. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with 5-aza-C (1 x 10(-3)M) for 2 h to analyze regions of chromatin decondensation. A comparative analysis of chromatin decondensation among rob(1;29), active BTAX and inactive BTAX showed significant differences (p=1.07 x 10(-7)). Post-hoc pair-wise comparisons using the Mann-Whitney U-test showed significant differences between rob(1;29) and active BTAX (p=1.97 x 10(-5)) and between the active BTAX and inactive BTAX (p=2.55 x 10(-7)). Nevertheless, rob(1;29) did not show significant differences when compared to inactive BTAX (p=0.078). Robertsonian translocation rob(1;29) showed a despiralization pattern similar to the inactive X chromosome. Pericentromeric despiralization in rob(1;29) and the inactive X chromosome was similar, with an average value and standard error of 0.75+/-0.11 and 0.75+/-0.083, respectively. A single condensed region was observed in the inactive X chromosome, whereas in rob(1;29) two regions of condensation, one proximal to the centromere and another proximal to the telomere were detected. Our results show that rob(1;29) and the inactive X chromosome present instability regions susceptible to 5-aza-C. Further studies will be needed to understand the nature and expression pattern of genes located in chromatin condensed regions of rob(1;29).

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