Tolosa J.,Area de Toxicologia |
Font G.,Area de Toxicologia |
Manes J.,Area de Toxicologia |
Ferrer E.,Area de Toxicologia
Revista de Toxicologia | Year: 2013
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, mainly Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. Fusarium also produce the emerging mycotoxins: beauvericin and enniatins (enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B and enniatin B1), among others. These mycotoxins are present in feed for farmed fish because they include cereals in its composition. Furthermore, these mycotoxins, when ingested, can appear in the animal muscle, assuming a potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins) in fish. Mycotoxins extraction is performed with acetonitrile using ultrasound. Mycotoxins are identified and quantified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. A total of nineteen fish samples were analyzed, sixteen fishes from fish farms (sea bass and sea bream) and three from extractive fishing (cod, mackerel and hake), but all of them were acquired in different supermarkets located in Valencia. Levels of enniatin A1, enniatin B and enniatin B1 were detected in the order of μg/kg in samples of farmed fish. The presence of these mycotoxins in fish tissue may be due to the intake of them in feed manufactured from raw materials containing these mycotoxins. Results showed that samples corresponding to aquaculture fishes showed mycotoxin contents, while samples from extractive fishing showed no presence of mycotoxins. Enniatin A and beauvericin were not detected in samples analyzed, while enniatin B was the most prevalent mycotoxin.