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Madrera R.R.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Valles B.S.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

A method based on stir bar sorptive extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (SBSE-GC-MS) has been optimized with the aim of applying it to the analysis of apple pomace. The method allowed the identification of 124 volatile compounds after 3 h of extraction with a precision (RSDs) ranging between 2% (linalool) and 11% (ethyl hexanoate). Its use in analyzing varietal apple pomace revealed the interest of this substrate as regards its content in aromas. From a semi-quantitative point of view, the higher content in aldehydes and esters of the Blanquina variety is worth highlighting, as are the greater concentration of acids in the Clara variety and the higher content of terpenes and norisoprenoides in the Coloradona variety. In contrast, the Ernestina and Perico varieties presented the lowest levels of aromas. Practical Application: The analysis of varietal apple pomaces showed the importance of this type of waste in the food industry, both for its content in aromas such as for its use as substrate in biotechnological processes. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists ®.

Pando Bedrinana R.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Querol Simon A.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Suarez Valles B.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

This paper analyses yeast diversity and dynamics during the production of Asturian cider. Yeasts were isolated from apple juice and at different stages of fermentation in a cellar in Villaviciosa during two Asturian cider-apple harvests. The species identified by ITS-RFLP corresponded to Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus/Saccharomyces pastorianus/Saccharomyces kudriavzevii/Saccharomyces mikatae. The species C. parapsilosis is reported here for the first time in cider. The analysis of Saccharomyces mtDNA patterns showed great diversity, sequential substitution and the presence of a small number of yeast patterns (up to 8), present in both harvests. Killer (patterns nos. 22′ and 47), sensitive (patterns nos. 12, 15, 33 and 61) and neutral phenotypes were found among the S. cerevisiae isolates. The detection of β-glucosidase activity, with arbutin as the sole carbon source, allowed two S. cerevisiae strains (patterns nos. 3′ and 19′) to be differentiated by means of this enzymatic activity. Yeast strains producing the killer toxin or with β-glucosidase activity are reported for the first time in autochthonous cider yeasts. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Suarez B.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Alvarez A.L.,University of Habana | Garcia Y.D.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Barrio G.d.,University of Habana | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Methanolic and acetonic extracts of apple pomace were evaluated for phenolic profiles, antioxidant properties and antiviral effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Acetone extraction yielded the higher amounts of phenolic compounds. The extraction method influenced the phenolic composition although antioxidant activity correlated weakly with phenols concentration. Among the polyphenols analysed, quercetin glycosides were the most important family, followed by dihydrochalcones. Apple pomace extracts were able to inhibit both HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in Vero cells by more than 50%, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Selectivity indexes (SI) ranged from 9.5 to 12.2. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pando Bedrinana R.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Lastra Queipo A.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Suarez Valles B.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The activities of polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase and protease were determined using solid media in 420 wild non-Saccharomyces cider strains identified by internal transcribed spacer-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The identified species corresponded to Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora osmophila, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Candida parapsilosis and Pichia guilliermondii. The most common activity exhibited was that of β-glucosidase (33%), with all the analyzed species having some strains able to develop this activity. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the greatest capacity to produce β-glucosidase and protease. β-xylosidase was detected in 17 yeast strains belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia and Metschnikowia. All of the tested species have some strains with the capacity to develop β-xylosidase activity, except for C. parapsilosis. No strains were able to secrete pectin lyase, while polygalacturonase activity was observed in eight Hanseniaspora strains. Only two strains, belonging to the species H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima, developed three enzymatic activities, namely β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase and protease. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rodriguez Madrera R.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Lobo A.P.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Alonso J.J.M.,Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos
Food Research International | Year: 2010

The influence of cider maturation on the chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh cider spirits was evaluated in the present study. To this end, a single-factor experiment with three maturation levels and five replicates (ciders) per level was developed. Level 1 corresponded to spirits obtained when alcoholic and malolactic fermentation of the ciders ceased, Level 2 corresponded to spirits obtained from ciders with a volatile acidity of 1.0 g/L acetic acid, while Level 3 corresponded to spirits made from ciders with a volatile acidity of 1.5 g/L acetic acid. Cider maturation significantly influenced the composition of the spirit as regards the ethyl esters of the major organic acids of cider (lactic, acetic and succinic). It also significantly influenced the content of aromas produced by bacterial activity (2-butanol, 2-propen-1-ol, 4-ethylguaiacol and eugenol), the concentration of which was found to increase with higher levels of maturation. The attributes "spicy" and "sweetness" were likewise influenced by the level of cider maturation. The distillates made from the most matured cider (volatile acidity 1.5 g acetic acid/L) scored better for "odour quality". © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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