Area de Salud de Menorca

Sada, Spain

Area de Salud de Menorca

Sada, Spain
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Zugna D.,University of Turin | Galassi C.,University of Turin | Annesi-Maesano I.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Baiz N.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 33 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Evidence on the effect of maternal complications in pregnancy on wheezing in offspring is still insufficient. Methods: A pooled analysis was performed on individual participant data from fourteen European birth cohorts to assess the relationship between several maternal pregnancy complications and wheezing symptoms in the offspring. Exposures of interest included hypertension and preeclampsia, diabetes, as well as prepregnancy overweight (body mass index between 25 and 29.9) and obesity (body mass index 30) compared with normal weight (body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9). Outcomes included both ever and recurrent wheezing from birth up to 12-24 months of age. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated using log-binomial regression models and then pooled using a random effects model. Results: The study included 85 509 subjects. Cohort-specific prevalence of ever wheezing varied from 20.0% to 47.3%, and of recurrent wheezing from 3.0% to 14.3%. Adjusted pooled RR for ever and recurrent wheezing were: 1.02 (95% CI: 0.98-1.06) and 1.20 (95% CI: 0.98-1.47) for hypertensive disorders; 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01-1.18) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07-1.43) for preeclampsia; 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97-1.13) and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.86-1.79) for diabetes; 1.08 (95% CI: 1.05-1.11) and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.12-1.26) for overweight; 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08-1.17) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.97-1.39) for obesity. No heterogeneity was found in RR estimates among the cohorts, except for diabetes and recurrent wheezing (P=0.027). Conclusions: Preeclampsia, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with an increase risk of wheezing in the offspring. © The Author 2015.


Gascon M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Gascon M.,CIBER ISCIII | Gascon M.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute | Gascon M.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 43 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants may affect the immune and respiratory systems, but available evidence is based on small study populations. We studied the association between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) and children's respiratory health in European birth cohorts. METHODS: We included 4608 mothers and children enrolled in 10 birth cohort studies from 7 European countries. Outcomes were parent-reported bronchitis and wheeze in the first 4 years of life. For each cohort, we performed Poisson regression analyses, modeling occurrences of the outcomes on the estimates of cord-serum concentrations of PCB 153 and DDE as continuous variables (per doubling exposure) and as cohort-specific tertiles. Summary estimates were obtained through random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The risk of bronchitis or wheeze (combined variable) assessed before 18 months of age increased with increasing DDE exposure (relative risk [RR] per doubling exposure = 1.03 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.07]). When these outcomes were analyzed separately, associations appeared stronger for bronchitis. We also found an association between increasing PCB 153 exposure and bronchitis in this period (RR per doubling exposure = 1.06 [1.01-1.12]) but not between PCB 153 and wheeze. No associations were found between either DDE or PCB 153 and ever-wheeze assessed after 18 months. Inclusion of both compounds in the models attenuated risk estimates for PCB 153 tertiles of exposure, whereas DDE associations were more robust. CONCLUSION: This large meta-analysis suggests that prenatal DDE exposure may be associated with respiratory health symptoms in young children (below 18 months), whereas prenatal PCB 153 levels were not associated with such symptoms. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Casas L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Casas L.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Casas L.,CIBER ISCIII | Sunyer J.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 27 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Background Exposure to indoor allergens during early life may play a role in the development of the immune system and inception of asthma. Objective To describe the house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentrations in bedroom dust during early life and to evaluate its associations with HDM sensitization, wheezing, and asthma, from birth to school age, in 5 geographically spread European birth cohorts. Methods We included 4334 children from INMA-Menorca (Spain), BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and MAS (Germany), and PIAMA-NHS (the Netherlands). Dust samples were collected from bedrooms during early life and analyzed for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). HDM concentrations were divided into four categories. Sensitization was determined by specific IgE. Wheezing and asthma information up to 8/10 years was collected through questionnaires. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression models and expressed associations as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results House dust mite concentrations varied across cohorts. Mean allergen concentrations were highest in INMA-Menorca (geometric mean (GM) Der p1 = 3.3 μg/g) and LISAplus (GM Der f1 = 2.1 μg/g) and lowest in BAMSE (GM Der p1 = 0.1 μg/g, Der f1 = 0.3 μg/g). Moderate and high HDM concentrations were significantly (P-values < 0.05) associated with 50-90% higher prevalence of HDM sensitization. No significant associations were observed with respiratory outcomes. Conclusion Our study based on geographically spread regions, a large sample size, and a wide range of allergen concentration shows that HDM allergen concentrations vary across regions and that exposure during early life plays a role in the development of allergic sensitization but not in the development of respiratory outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Morales E.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Morales E.,Hospital del Mar Research Institute IMIM | Morales E.,CIBER ISCIII | Bustamante M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 36 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Introduction: Breastfeeding effects on cognition are attributed to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), but controversy persists. Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase (FADS) and elongase (ELOVL) enzymes has been overlooked when studying the effects of LC-PUFAs supply on cognition. We aimed to: 1) to determine whether maternal genetic variants in the FADS cluster and ELOVL genes contribute to differences in LC-PUFA levels in colostrum; 2) to analyze whether these maternal variants are related to child cognition; and 3) to assess whether children's variants modify breastfeeding effects on cognition. Methods: Data come from two population-based birth cohorts (n = 400 mother-child pairs from INMA-Sabadell; and n = 340 children from INMA-Menorca). LC-PUFAs were measured in 270 colostrum samples from INMA-Sabadell. Tag SNPs were genotyped both in mothers and children (13 in the FADS cluster, 6 in ELOVL2, and 7 in ELOVL5). Child cognition was assessed at 14 mo and 4 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, respectively. Results: Children of mothers carrying genetic variants associated with lower FADS1 activity (regulating AA and EPA synthesis), higher FADS2 activity (regulating DHA synthesis), and with higher EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios in colostrum showed a significant advantage in cognition at 14 mo (3.5 to 5.3 points). Not being breastfed conferred an 8- to 9-point disadvantage in cognition among children GG homozygote for rs174468 (low FADS1 activity) but not among those with the A allele. Moreover, not being breastfed resulted in a disadvantage in cognition (5 to 8 points) among children CC homozygote for rs2397142 (low ELOVL5 activity), but not among those carrying the G allele. Conclusion: Genetically determined maternal supplies of LC-PUFAs during pregnancy and lactation appear to be crucial for child cognition. Breastfeeding effects on cognition are modified by child genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase and elongase enzymes. © 2011 Morales et al.


Forns J.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Forns J.,Hospital del Mar Research Institute IMIM | Forns J.,CIBER ISCIII | Torrent M.,Area de Salud de Menorca | And 22 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are synthetic organochlorine compounds with potential neurotoxic effects. Although negative effects on neuropsychological development have been observed in previous studies on PCB exposure, there are inconsistencies in these effects at current exposure levels of these compounds which are much lower than for previous generations. This study aimed to disentangle the effects of prenatal and postnatal PCB exposure on neuropsychological development at 4. years of age. This study is based on a population-based birth cohort design established in Menorca (Spain) as part of the INMA [Environment and Childhood] Project. We assessed general neuropsychological development using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MCSA). A total of 422 4-year old children were assessed with the MCSA. Levels of PCBs were measured in cord blood (n = 405) and in blood samples taken at 4. years (n = 285). We found no statistically significant effects of the sum of prenatal PCBs on MCSA scores. Nevertheless, individual congener analyses yielded significant detrimental effects of prenatal PCB153 on the majority of MCSA scores, while no effects were reported for other congeners. The levels of PCBs at 4. years of age were not associated with neuropsychological development. Thus, prenatal exposure to low-level concentrations of PCBs, particularly PCB153, was associated with an overall deleterious effect on neuropsychological development at 4. years of age, including negative effects on executive function, verbal functions and visuospatial abilities, but not on motor development. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Forns J.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Forns J.,Hospital del Mar Research Institute IMIM | Forns J.,CIBER ISCIII | Torrent M.,Area de Salud de Menorca | And 22 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

Prenatal and early-life exposures can affect the course of children's neuropsychological development well into pre-adolescence, given the vulnerability of the developing brain. However, it is unknown which socio-environmental factors at early childhood can influence specific cognitive processes like attention at a later age. In this study, we aim to determine social and environmental exposures in early childhood that may be associated with attention function of 11-year-olds.We measured attention function using the continuous performance test-II (CPT-II) on 393 11-year old children from the Menorca's birth-cohort within the INMA-project (Spain), and pre-selected a list of socio-environmental observations taken when they were up to 4 years of age. We found that earlier socio-environmental characteristics, such as parental social class, educational level and maternal mental health are associated with later inattentive and impulsive symptomatology through a higher rate of omission and commission errors. In addition, omission errors were higher in children with atopy and lower in those whose mothers took dietary supplementation with folic acid and vitamins during pregnancy. Breastfeeding played a protective role against commission errors, while higher DDE and PCBs levels at age 4 were associated with slow speed response. Our findings suggest that a number of life socio-environmental factors during prenatal life and early childhood, such as socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding, maternal nutritional supplementation with folic acid and vitamins and exposure to some organochlorine compounds may influence inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptomatology during pre-adolescence. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Tischer C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Casas L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Casas L.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Casas L.,CIBER ISCIII | And 19 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2015

Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n=553; INMA: n=481; and LISAplus: n=395), endotoxin, (1,3,)-β-D-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)-β-D-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments. Copyright © ERS 2015.


Casas L.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Casas L.,Municipal Institute of Medical Research IMIM | Casas L.,CIBER ISCIII | Tischer C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 16 more authors.
Indoor Air | Year: 2013

Early-life exposure to microbial agents may play a protective role in asthma and allergies development. Geographical differences in the prevalence of these diseases exist, but the differences in early-life indoor microbial agent levels and their determinants have been hardly studied. We aimed to describe the early-life levels of endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and β(1-3)-glucans in living room dust of four geographically spread European birth cohorts (LISA in Germany, PIAMA in the Netherlands, INMA in Spain, and LUKAS2 in Finland) and to assess their determinants. A total of 1572 dust samples from living rooms of participants were analyzed for endotoxin, Penicillium/Aspergillus EPS, and β(1-3)-glucans. Information on potential determinants was obtained through questionnaires. Concentrations of endotoxin, EPS, and β(1-3)-glucans were different across cohorts. Concentrations of endotoxin and EPS were respectively lower and higher in INMA than in other cohorts, while glucans were higher in LUKAS2. Season of sampling, dog ownership, dampness, and the number of people living at home were significantly associated with concentrations of at least one microbial agent, with heterogeneity of effect estimates of the determinants across cohorts. In conclusion, both early-life microbial exposure levels and exposure determinants differ across cohorts derived from diverse European countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | University Utrecht, CIBER ISCIII, University Pompeu Fabra, Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The European respiratory journal | Year: 2015

Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n=553; INMA: n=481; and LISAplus: n=395), endotoxin, (1,3,)--d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)--d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments.


PubMed | University Utrecht, Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Allergy | Year: 2015

Exposure to indoor allergens during early life may play a role in the development of the immune system and inception of asthma.To describe the house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentrations in bedroom dust during early life and to evaluate its associations with HDM sensitization, wheezing, and asthma, from birth to school age, in 5 geographically spread European birth cohorts.We included 4334 children from INMA-Menorca (Spain), BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and MAS (Germany), and PIAMA-NHS (the Netherlands). Dust samples were collected from bedrooms during early life and analyzed for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). HDM concentrations were divided into four categories. Sensitization was determined by specific IgE. Wheezing and asthma information up to 8/10 years was collected through questionnaires. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression models and expressed associations as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals.House dust mite concentrations varied across cohorts. Mean allergen concentrations were highest in INMA-Menorca (geometric mean (GM) Der p1 = 3.3 g/g) and LISAplus (GM Der f1 = 2.1 g/g) and lowest in BAMSE (GM Der p1 = 0.1 g/g, Der f1 = 0.3 g/g). Moderate and high HDM concentrations were significantly (P-values < 0.05) associated with 50-90% higher prevalence of HDM sensitization. No significant associations were observed with respiratory outcomes.Our study based on geographically spread regions, a large sample size, and a wide range of allergen concentration shows that HDM allergen concentrations vary across regions and that exposure during early life plays a role in the development of allergic sensitization but not in the development of respiratory outcomes.

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