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Ibanez B.,CSIC - Estacion Experimental De Zonas Aridas | Cervantes I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gutierrez J.P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Goyache F.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Moreno E.,CSIC - Estacion Experimental De Zonas Aridas
Ecology and Evolution

Together with the avoidance of any negative impact of inbreeding, preservation of genetic variability for life-history traits that could undergo future selective pressure is a major issue in endangered species management programmes. However, most of these programmes ignore that, apart from the direct action of genes on such traits, parents, as contributors of offspring environment, can influence offspring performance through indirect parental effects (when parental genotype and phenotype exerts environmental influences on offspring phenotype independently of additive genetic effects). Using quantitative genetic models, we estimated the additive genetic variance for juvenile survival in a population of the endangered Cuvier's gazelle kept in captivity since 1975. The dataset analyzed included performance recording for 700 calves and a total pedigree of 740 individuals. Results indicated that in this population juvenile survival harbors significant additive genetic variance. The estimates of heritability obtained were in general moderate (0.115-0.457) and not affected by the inclusion of inbreeding in the models. Maternal genetic contribution to juvenile survival seems to be of major importance in this gazelle's population as well. Indirect genetic and indirect environmental effects assigned to mothers (i.e., maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects) roughly explain a quarter of the total variance estimated for the trait analyzed. These findings have major evolutionary consequences for the species as show that offspring phenotypes can evolve strictly through changes in the environment provided by mothers. They are also relevant for the captive breeding programme of the species. To take into account, the contribution that mothers have on offspring phenotype through indirect genetic effects when designing pairing strategies might serve to identify those females with better ability to recruit, and, additionally, to predict reliable responses to selection in the captive population. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Edwards C.J.,Trinity College Dublin | Edwards C.J.,University of Oxford | Ginja C.,University of California at Davis | Ginja C.,Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos | And 10 more authors.

Background: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries. © 2011 Edwards et al. Source

Perez-Pardal L.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Royo L.J.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Curik I.,University of Zagreb | Traore A.,Inera | And 7 more authors.
Animal Genetics

Five cattle Y-specific microsatellites, totalling six loci, were selected from a set of 44 markers and genotyped on 608 Bos taurus males belonging to 45 cattle populations from Europe and Africa. A total of 38 haplotypes were identified. Haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) previously defined using single nucleotide polymorphisms did not share haplotypes. Nine of the 27 Y2-haplotypes were only present in African cattle. Network and correspondence analyses showed that this African-specific subfamily clustered separately from the main Y2-subfamily and the Y1 haplotypes. Within-breed genetic variability was generally low, with most breeds (78%) showing haplotypes belonging to a single haplogroup. amova analysis showed that partitioning of genetic variation among breeds can be mainly explained by their geographical and haplogroup assignment. Between-breed genetic variability summarized via Principal Component Analysis allowed the identification of three principal components explaining 94.2% of the available information. Projection of principal components on geographical maps illustrated that cattle populations located in mainland Europe, the three European Peninsulas and Mediterranean Africa presented similar genetic variation, whereas those breeds from Atlantic Europe and British Islands (mainly carrying Y1 haplotypes) and those from Sub-Saharan Africa (belonging to Y2-haplogroup) showed genetic variation of a different origin. Our study confirmed the existence of two large Y-chromosome lineages (Y1 and Y2) in taurine cattle. However, Y-specific microsatellites increased analytical resolution and allowed at least two different Y2-haplotypic subfamilies to be distinguished, one of them restricted to the African continent. © 2009 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics. Source

Chen S.,University of Porto | Lin B.-Z.,Kobe University | Baig M.,Government Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities | Baig M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 21 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution

Animal domestication was a major step forward in human prehistory, contributing to the emergence of more complex societies. At the time of the Neolithic transition, zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were probably the most abundant and important domestic livestock species in Southern Asia. Although archaeological evidence points toward the domestication of zebu cattle within the Indian subcontinent, the exact geographic origins and phylogenetic history of zebu cattle remains uncertain. Here, we report evidence from 844 zebu mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences surveyed from 19 Asiatic countries comprising 8 regional groups, which identify 2 distinct mitochondrial haplogroups, termed I1 and I2. The marked increase in nucleotide diversity (P < 0.001) for both the I1 and I2 haplogroups within the northern part of the Indian subcontinent is consistent with an origin for all domestic zebu in this area. For haplogroup I1, genetic diversity was highest within the Indus Valley among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Indus Valley, Ganges, and South India). These data support the Indus Valley as the most likely center of origin for the I1 haplogroup and a primary center of zebu domestication. However, for the I2 haplogroup, a complex pattern of diversity is detected, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of origin for this zebu maternal lineage. Our findings are discussed with respect to the archaeological record for zebu domestication within the Indian subcontinent. Source

Perez-Pardal L.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Perez-Pardal L.,University of Minnesota | Royo L.J.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Beja-Pereira A.,University of Porto | And 12 more authors.

In this study, we show how Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites, which are loci that yield several amplified bands differing in size from the same male individual and PCR reaction, are a powerful source of information for tracing the history of cattle. Our results confirm the existence of three main groups of sires, which are separated by evolutionary time and clearly predate domestication. These three groups are consistent with the haplogroups previously identified by Götherström et al. (2005) using five Y-specific segregating sites: Y1 and Y2 in taurine (Bos taurus) cattle and Y3 in zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. The zebu cattle cluster clearly originates from a domestication process that was geographically and temporally separated from that of taurine clusters. Our analyses further suggest that: (i) introgression of wild sire genetic material into domesticated herds may have a significant role in the formation of modern cattle, including the formation of the Y1 haplogroup; (ii) a putative domestication event in Africa probably included local Y2-like wild sires; (iii) the West African zebu cattle Y-chromosome may have partially originated from an ancient introgression of humped cattle into Africa; and (iv) the high genetic similarity among Asian zebu sires is consistent with a single domestication process. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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