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Ribeiro E.N.,Area 1 Security | Da Silva F.T.,University of Sao Paulo | De Paiva T.C.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

The present study evaluated the toxic potential and physicochemical characteristics of waste water generated in nitrocellulose production, including effluents from delignification, bleaching, nitration and mixture (composed of these three effluents), from a plant in the Paraiba Valley, So Paulo, Brazil. The test organisms used for toxicity assays were Daphnia similis, Danio rerio, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudokircheneriella subcaptata. The results showed that the effluents analyzed present acute and chronic toxicity for the organisms tested. Nitration effluent was the least toxic, while delignification and bleaching effluents were the most toxic. The naturally occurring pollutants in wood fiber and cotton, like lignin, probably contributed to effluents toxicity, in addition to higher concentrations of total dissolved solids, which are in non-compliance with Brazilian legislation, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand and color. The discharge of nitrocellulose effluent into an aquatic environment should only occur after appropriate treatment, due to their toxic characteristics. © Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Montezano D.G.,University of Caxias do Sul | Specht A.,Embrapa Cerrados | Roque-Specht V.F.,Area 1 Security | de Barros N.M.,University of Caxias do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia | Year: 2013

Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase). The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days) was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days). The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001). However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002) and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001). The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 × 1025 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T) was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l) of 1.193, per week.

News Article | December 19, 2014
Site: www.xconomy.com

If venture firms still had any doubt about the cybersecurity field as a good prospect for investors, the ongoing wreckage inflicted by hackers on entertainment giant Sony over the past month may put those doubts to rest. Sony has seen everything from corporate salaries to its executives’ snide e-mail comments about President Obama and Angelina Jolie exposed by the hackers’ leaks. It has just canceled release of “The Interview,” the film that was the apparent target of the computer network invaders. It didn’t take a catastrophe on the scale of Sony’s, however, to get some VCs interested in the field. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers general partner Ted Schlein, who came to KPCB after helping Symantec develop its commercial anti-virus software, has since backed a roster of security software startups. His latest bet is Menlo Park CA-based Area 1 Security, whose $8 million Series A financing, led by Schlein, was announced on a mid-December day when Sony was writhing under an onslaught of news stories mined from millions of formerly guarded company documents and e-mails. Area 1 CEO Oren Falkowitz (pictured above) says he co-founded the company in 2013 to concentrate on the crucial first steps in such a major cyber attack—the moment that even a single company employee clicks on a dicey link and unwittingly opens a doorway to intruders eager to install malware. “It only takes one,” says Falkowitz, who learned to observe patterns in these e-mail lures when he worked for six years at the National Security Agency, whose mission includes preventing foreign enemies from tapping into sources of U.S. government information that are key to the nation’s safety. Falkowitz’s co-founders include fellow NSA veterans Blake Darche and Phil Syme. Falkowitz says people are extraordinarily vulnerable to hackers’ tricks, such as deceptive online ads and e-mails that look like they come from your bank or a colleague. Sometimes the intruders send messages from legitimate websites they have hijacked to serve their purposes. “If a hacker sends a malicious e-mail to as few as 10 people, there’s a 90 percent success rate of one of those people clicking,” Falkowitz says. Once the intruders gain entry, they can take advantage of the first employee’s access to the company computer network, gradually inserting files and extending their reach, Falkowitz says. In a major attack like that at Sony, hackers may have been inside the network for nearly a year, he says. Area 1 is developing security technology to detect the characteristic methods used by hackers to manipulate people into clicking a dubious link. These messages deviate from normal patterns of communication, he says. “If you can stop the first phase—the e-mail part—then you can prevent the greatest damage.” Area 1 Security is now working in pilot mode with banks, energy companies, retailers, and other large concerns to gain feedback on its technology, Falkowitz says. The Series A round brings the startup’s fundraising total to $10.5 million. Investors who contributed to Area 1’s seed financing have also participated in its Series A round. They include Allegis Capital, Cowboy Ventures, Data Collective (DCVC), First Round Capital, RedSeal Networks CEO and former Venrock partner Ray Rothrock, and Shape Security CEO Derek Smith. The new capital will help Area 1 Security continue an expansion of its staff, which will number 15 by the beginning of 2015, Falkowitz says. The increasing use of mobile devices has made companies even more vulnerable to hackers, who use new technologies as fresh vectors to insert their malware, Falkowitz says. Staffers often load their work files onto phones and tablets so they can work remotely—sometimes connecting to the Web through unfamiliar Wi-fi connections. “They remove themselves from the safe environment at work, do something at home, and then bring that right back inside the company,” Falkowitz says. Established cybersecurity companies are retooling to handle the changing technological inroads for hackers, the changing nature of cyber attacks themselves, and the challenge of early detection. The ongoing string of cyber attacks at major companies, including Target and Home Depot as well as Sony, has heightened awareness of the potential losses in both dollars and reputation, Falkowitz says. Companies are now more willing to spend time and money to protect themselves, he says. “The market is just growing exponentially for the ability to control these kinds of losses,” Falkowitz says. Bernadette Tansey is Xconomy's San Francisco Editor. You can reach her at btansey@xconomy.com. Follow @Tansey_Xconomy

Sutherland W.J.,University of Cambridge | Albon S.D.,Macaulay Institute | Allison H.,The Woodland Trust | Armstrong-Brown S.,Royal Society for the Protection of Birds | And 26 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2010

1. The conservation of biodiversity depends upon both policy and regulatory frameworks. Here, we identify priority policy developments that would support conservation in the UK in the light of technological developments, changes in knowledge or environmental change. 2. A team of seven representatives from governmental organizations, 17 from non-governmental organizations and six academics provided an assessment of the priority issues. The representatives consulted widely and identified a long-list of 117 issues. 3. Following voting and discussion during a 2-day meeting, these were reduced to a final list of 25 issues and their potential policy options and research needs were identified. Many of the policies related to recent changes in approaches to conservation, such as increased interest in ecosystem services, adaptation to climate change and landscape ecology. 4. We anticipate that this paper will be useful for policy makers, nature conservation delivery agencies, the research community and conservation policy advocates. 5. Although many of the options have global significance, we suggest that other countries consider an equivalent exercise. We recommend that such an exercise be carried out in the UK at regular intervals, say every 5 years, to explore how biodiversity conservation can best be supported by linked policy development and research in a changing world. 6. Synthesis and applications. Opportunities for policy development were prioritized and for each of the top 25 we identified the current context, policy options and research questions. These largely addressed new issues relating to developing topics such as ecosystem services, landscape planning and nanotechnology. We envisage that this will largely be used by researchers wishing to make a contribution to potential policy debates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Jimenez D.,University of Alcala | Jimenez S.,Area de Urgencias | Jimenez S.,Area 1 Security | Martinez-Lopez I.,Hospital Universitario Son Espases | And 5 more authors.
Pharmacoeconomics - Spanish Research Articles | Year: 2015

Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban versus conventional therapy (low molecular weight heparin and acenocoumarol) in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: A Markov model that describes the management and consequences of VTE was adapted to Spain. After suffering DVT or PE, patients were treated with rivaroxaban or conventional therapy for 6 months. The transition probabilities were obtained from the combined analysis of the EINSTEIN studies (DVT and PE) and related literature. Costs and health outcomes were assigned to each state to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The analysis was made from the National Health System (NHS) perspective, including direct healthcare costs (2013 euros) and a discount rate of 3[%]. Various sensitivity analyzes were performed to assess the robustness of the results. Results: After 6 months, treatment with rivaroxaban was a dominant option over conventional treatment, with a reduction in costs of €507 and €436 for DVT and PE, respectively, and an increase of 0.033 and 0.030 QALYs for DVT and PE, respectively, compared with conventional treatment. The results of the probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the efficiency of rivaroxaban for 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Conclusions: From the NHS perspective, rivaroxaban is a dominant option in the treatment of VTE compared to conventional therapy. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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