Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Ardhi University

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Ardhi University is a public university in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It was established 28 March 2007, though it has been offering training for more than 60 years in different status. It is situated on Observation Hill close to University of Dar es Salaam, in which it was a constituent college from 1996-2007, when it was known as University College of Lands and Architectural Studies—UCLAS. Prior being part of University of Dar es Salaam, Ardhi University was known as Ardhi Institute with history extending to mid-1950s.Today, academic activities at the university are generated in six schools: of Architecture and Design; of Construction Economics and Management; of Geo spatial science and Technology; of Real Estates Studies; of Urban and Regional Planning; and of Environmental science and Technology. The number of academic staff with doctoral degrees has increased from three in 1996 to 43 in 2008. Wikipedia.

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Kihila J.M.,Ardhi University
Jamba: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies | Year: 2017

Fire disasters are accompanied with devastating impact affecting both lives and properties. The magnitude of the impacts has been severe in places with low levels of fire disaster preparedness. A study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate the level of fire disaster preparedness considering the availability and condition of firefighting facilities as well as the knowledge on fire management among the selected 10 higher learning institutions. Information for the buildings was obtained from the interviews with the managers of the buildings and field observations; information on the user's preparedness was obtained from interviews using structured questionnaire conducted with the users of the buildings including the visitors. Results from the studied buildings indicated that 60% of the firefighting facilities were not regularly serviced; 50% stored some hazardous materials; 70% of them had not enough water storage for firefighting purposes; 60% had no identifiable fire assembly points; and 90% of the sessions conducted in the buildings involved more than 100 people in a single venue. Further results indicated that 51% of the respondents were not able to operate the installed firefighting facilities; 80.7% of the respondents had never received any training on firefighting and prevention; 95.6% of the respondents had never participated in any fire drills; and 81.5% of them were not aware of the fire responder's contacts. General situation indicated that higher learning institutions are not well prepared to manage fire outbreaks suggesting that plans to rectify the situation are imperative. © 2017. The Authors.

Shemdoe R.,Ardhi University
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2015

Climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions have traditionally been planned at the national and policy levels, but their implementation is done predominantly at the local government authority level. The general mandate of local governments is to work for their communities. At these levels, in both rural and urban contexts, local government technical cadres are required to be equipped with knowledge and skills to address existing problems effectively, including climate change-induced impacts. A study conducted in the urban local government authorities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, revealed low levels of knowledge and skills related to policies, plans and strategies pertinent to climate change and vulnerability assessments. As an entry point for climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions to be included in the local authority plans and budgets, there is a need to build capacity of the technical cadres. Short courses, workshops and seminars, training workshops, on-job training, conferences and postgraduate training are recommended to ensure that capacity of the local government authorities regarding climate change aspects is improved. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2010

The social and economic impact of natural disasters in emerging economies and developing countries is growing. Many African countries have fragile economies unable to absorb the shocks caused by natural disasters enhanced by the increasing vulnerability of rapidly expanding urban areas. Climate change is likely to rapidly exacerbate this situation. The overall objective of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to manage climate risks, to reduce vulnerabilities and to improve coping capacity and resilience towards climate changes. CLUVA will explore these issues in selected African cities (Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, Douala, Ougadougou, St.Louis). The project aims at improving the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. CLUVA will assess the environmental, social and economic impacts and the risks of climate change induced hazards expected to affect urban areas (floods, sea-level rise, storm surges, droughts, heat waves, desertification, storms and fires) at various time frames. The project will develop innovative climate change risk adaptation strategies based on strong interdisciplinary components. CLUVA will be conducted by a balanced partnership of European and African partners. The 7 European partners will bring together some of EUs leading experts in climate, quantitative hazard and risk assessment, risk management, urban planners and social scientists. The 6 African partners from South Africa and from the Universities of the selected cities cover a similar range of expertises, making possible an effective integrated research effort. The project is structured in 6 WorkPackages dealing with climate change and impact models (WP1), multiple vulnerability (WP2), urban planning and governance as key issues to increase the resilience (WP3), capacity building and dissemination (WP4), coordination of the activities in the selected cities (WP5) and project management (WP6).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.6.3 | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2008

The ADA project aims at acquiring and sharing knowledge about affordable ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) solutions in Africa with the ambition to reduce the risk of natural disasters and to improve the capacity to respond to disasters.Many Developing Countries in Africa are exposed to serious natural disaster risks and their need for an adequate ICT infrastructure supporting DRM is high. Unfortunately, access to ICT knowledge and affordable ICT systems is often lacking.The ADA project will1. assess the natural hazards, the vulnerability of the communities and the disaster risks in Africa; and2. assess the role of ICT based systems in each hazard category; and3. explore the ICT trends and needs for the future; and4. test the usefulness of GEONETCast as an alert system; and5. share this information with all DRM stakeholders in Africa (by workshops and other); and6. prepare 3 showcases of operational African DRM systems for demo on these workshops; and7. promote and support the take-up of this technology for use in other disasters; and8. liaise with any new project in DRM with a significant involvement of African partners.ADA will test whether the existing GEONETCast infrastructure can be reused as a component of an alert or emergency system. ADA sets up a testcase in South-Africa where the Forest Fire Association in Nelspruit, South-Africa will use the wildfire-alarms from CSIR within their operational activities to fight wildfires. If successful, many DRM systems can benefit from this technology.The project is envisioned to have a big impact with a limited budget, by close cooperation with the AARSE and EUMETSAT conferences and within the UNeDRA network.This effort will support authorities in Developing Countries in setting up their National Disaster Action Plans (as required by the Hyogo agreements) by offering knowledge about working ICT solutions and help them to better manage their disaster risks.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: SSH.2011.4.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.50M | Year: 2012

The overall objective of the African Rural-City Connections (RurbanAfrica) project is to explore the connections between rural transformations, mobility, and urbanization processes and analyze how these contribute to an understanding of the scale, nature and location of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. The RurbanAfrica project will advance the research agenda on rural-city connections in sub-Saharan Africa by addressing a range of crucial components: agricultural transformations, rural livelihoods, city dynamics, and access to services in cities. In this respect the project will challenge a number of generally accepted truths about rural and city development, and the importance and implication of migration in shaping these. It will thereby question the overall negative interpretations of the economic role of rural-urban mobility and migration in sub-Saharan Africa and generate new insights into the relationship between rural-city connections and poverty dynamics. The project will include nine partners; four European, one international, and four sub-Saharan African. RurbanAfrica focuses on four country cases: Rwanda, Tanzania, Cameroon and Ghana and examine in-depth two rural-city connections in each of the case countries. Research is organized into six work packages: Agricultural transformation, rural livelihoods, city dynamics, access to services, knowledge platform and policy dialogue, and synthesis, dissemination and management. Central to the approach is the on-going integration of policy research, policy dialogue, knowledge sharing and empirical research. Through ongoing collaboration between senior and junior researchers from European and sub-Saharan African partners, and co-supervising of PhD students, the project will contribute to capacity building and potentially impact curriculum development. The research and dissemination process will be supported by a scientific advisory board, with members from European and sub-Saharan African research institutions.

Mayunga J.S.,Ardhi University
Natural Hazards Review | Year: 2012

As major disasters increasingly continue to displace people every year, sheltering evacuees is becoming a major challenge for planners and emergency managers. The increasing volume of evacuations and the number of people involved pose unique challenges for developing effective evacuation plans, especially with regard to effective use of public shelters. Despite the importance of public shelters, little empirical research has been done on why most disaster evacuees tend to avoid them. This study examines this long-standing question, focusing on factors that may predict public-shelter users' satisfaction. Regression analysis is used on data from a survey conducted in Switchback, South-Central Texas, following a devastating flood in 1998. Results suggest perceived quality of shelter and level of education are among the most important predictors of public-shelter users' satisfaction. Findings of this case study are discussed in light of how to best plan and manage public shelters. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Concentrations of heavy metals in soils and leachetes in the closed coastal dumpsite of Mtoni, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Mean concentrationsof leachetes in mg/L were in the following order: Cr > Ni> Pb> As> Cd whereas, concentrations of As and Cr in the soil samples were above the established contaminant limits of Tanzania Standard Soil Quality. The concentration of Ni was low. Soil samples at 10 m from the edge of the dumpsite showed higher concentrations of Cd and Pb compared to the established national contamination limit. Based on this observation we recommend awareness creation to farmers depending on the area for vegetable production on the need to relocate their activities to at least 200 m away from the edge of the dumpsite. Moreover, alternative income generating activities for farmers should be considered by the communities and the municipal authorities in order to reduce health hazards that may affect urban smallholder farmers depending on the dumpsite areas for agricultural production. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Kikwasi G.,Ardhi University
Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM 2016 | Year: 2016

Risk handling options have been fairly studied and include avoidance, reduction (mitigation); transfer (sharing) and retention. The decision on the type of handling option to be adopted depends on the ranking results. Risk transfer is one of the handling options that can be practiced through acquiring insurance covers. Insurance transfers construction insurable risks into the arms of insurers. The main objective of this study is to examine insurance covers available for use in the construction industry and their use in risk treatment. The study is of exploratory type covering two sectors mainly construction and insurance. The population of the study includes construction stakeholders and insurance agencies. The sample size preferred was 120 respondents. Mixed sampling techniques were used to select respondents and literature review and questionnaires were employed to collect the data. Out of 120 questionnaires administered only 57 fairly filled for use in data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Findings reveal that there are about 15 insurance covers used for various purposes in the construction industry at varying degrees. Furthermore, Contractor All Risks (CAR) insurance cover is frequently used with RFI between 1.0 and 0.80 while Performance Failure, Contractor's Equipment Coverage, Workers Compensation, Third Party Liability and Equipment Breakdown are used on average with RFI 0.8 ≤ 0.60 and the rest are used less frequent. The study concludes that insurance as one form of risk transfer option has adequate covers for the construction industry but only a paucity of these covers is adequately acquired by stakeholders.

The city of Dar es Salaam, with a population of more than four million, has no climate change adaptation plan. It also has a very large development deficit and lacks adequate provision for infrastructure and services such as piped water, sewers, drains and solid waste collection. Addressing this deficit (and building the institutional and financial capacity to do so) is also important for building resilience to climate change impacts. Eighty per cent of the city's population lives in informal settlements, but there is little effective land use management and a number of these settlements are on sites that flood regularly. Climate change impacts include sea level rise, rising temperatures and increased occurrence of extreme weather, including rainstorms and droughts, all of which present challenges to city and municipal governments that are struggling to reduce the development deficit. This paper discusses the measures being taken to address this deficit and where and how these measures can be accompanied by improved disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. © 2013 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

News Article | January 25, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

Ever since his mother's house was pulled down some three weeks ago, Abdallah Mkwama and his family have been squatting in a makeshift shack made of wooden planks and loosely fixed iron sheets. "It feels so bad sleeping outside, mosquitoes bite me, but we don't have the means to go anywhere else," he said. Despite the tough living conditions, seven-year-old Mkwama, who enrolled for free primary education this year, does not want miss lessons. Every day, he wakes up early to fold and store his dusty mattress so that no one steals it and starts getting ready for school. The pupil at Hananasif Primary School carefully uses water his mother has stored in discarded plastic bottles to brush his teeth. "My mother usually prepares breakfast for us, but sometimes she doesn't have the money to buy sugar," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. Mkwama, his older sister and parents are among hundreds of Dar es Salaam residents whose homes were reduced to rubble by the demolition of about 700 houses across the sprawling Msimbazi river flood plain. Broken bricks and pieces of wood are scattered everywhere. A damaged pit latrine gives off an unbearable stench. Children play hide-and-seek on a pile of debris nearby, seemingly oblivious to what has happened. "I am very worried for my children's health since we don't have running water and a toilet," said Mkwama's mother, Stamily Samata. The demolition exercise, which targets more than 8,000 houses built contrary to the city's 1970s masterplan, has been temporarily halted after some residents rushed to the court to spare their houses from being torn down. Last rainy season, a spate of unusually heavy downpours pounded Dar es Salaam, leaving dozens dead and wreaking havoc with the fragile city's infrastructure. The Tanzanian government has for many years tried to convince poor families to move out of flood-prone areas, but they have always resisted. Few have money to buy plots elsewhere, and the Msimbazi plain is close to the city center. The government estimates that more than 70 percent of Dar es Salaam's five million people live in informal, unplanned settlements that often lack basic sanitation. "I don't understand why the government has decided to punish us now even though we have lived here for so long," said Amina Masound, whose house in the Mkwajuni area was knocked down. "I cannot imagine what our lives will be like when the rainy season comes." Saidi Meck Sadiki, Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner, said the eviction exercise was in accordance with the country's environmental law which prohibits human activity on wetlands. "We have repeatedly warned them to vacate for their own safety but none of them heeded our call," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. While the government maintains that the destroyed homes were built illegally, some residents claim to possess valid title deeds. One of the fastest growing cities in Africa, Dar es Salaam faces enormous pressure from the growing number of migrants from rural areas. Rapid population growth is causing overcrowding, pollution, food shortages and insufficient water supplies. According to an "Economics of Climate Change Study" in 2011, Dar es Salaam's population will surge to over 10 million people by 2040, making it a megacity. It shows that about 140,000 people live in areas vulnerable to flooding. "Public authorities have the duty to plan and monitor how urban development is evolving, unfortunately this job is getting too hard for them," said Riziki Shemdoe, professor of land and urban planning at Ardhi University in Dar es Salaam. "Planners need to have a broad vision of development, taking into account the need of working classes, and the understanding of the sociology of the poor," he said. WHERE TO GO? The government had not made plans for those whose houses they destroyed before the demolition exercise began, saying the residents had defied directives issued by the city authorities. As a result, many families, like Mkwama's, are simply squatting on the same land in hastily built shelters. "We simply don't have the resources and alternative land to offer these people, they are simply too many," said Sadiki, the Regional Commissioner. "They should find rental accommodation somewhere else." He warned residents who are still squatting on the wetlands to immediately move out. Human rights campaigners, however, have criticized the government's move to evict low-income families without making plans for where they would go next. Yefred Myenzi, a land rights expert working with Haki Ardhi, a land rights campaign group in Dar es Salaam, said the evictions were conducted without a "human face". "There should at least be temporary shelter for the victims to avoid humanitarian suffering," he said.

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