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Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Ardhi University is a public university in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It was established 28 March 2007, though it has been offering training for more than 60 years in different status. It is situated on Observation Hill close to University of Dar es Salaam, in which it was a constituent college from 1996-2007, when it was known as University College of Lands and Architectural Studies—UCLAS. Prior being part of University of Dar es Salaam, Ardhi University was known as Ardhi Institute with history extending to mid-1950s.Today, academic activities at the university are generated in six schools: of Architecture and Design; of Construction Economics and Management; of Geo spatial science and Technology; of Real Estates Studies; of Urban and Regional Planning; and of Environmental science and Technology. The number of academic staff with doctoral degrees has increased from three in 1996 to 43 in 2008. Wikipedia.

Mayunga J.S.,Ardhi University
Natural Hazards Review | Year: 2012

As major disasters increasingly continue to displace people every year, sheltering evacuees is becoming a major challenge for planners and emergency managers. The increasing volume of evacuations and the number of people involved pose unique challenges for developing effective evacuation plans, especially with regard to effective use of public shelters. Despite the importance of public shelters, little empirical research has been done on why most disaster evacuees tend to avoid them. This study examines this long-standing question, focusing on factors that may predict public-shelter users' satisfaction. Regression analysis is used on data from a survey conducted in Switchback, South-Central Texas, following a devastating flood in 1998. Results suggest perceived quality of shelter and level of education are among the most important predictors of public-shelter users' satisfaction. Findings of this case study are discussed in light of how to best plan and manage public shelters. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

The city of Dar es Salaam, with a population of more than four million, has no climate change adaptation plan. It also has a very large development deficit and lacks adequate provision for infrastructure and services such as piped water, sewers, drains and solid waste collection. Addressing this deficit (and building the institutional and financial capacity to do so) is also important for building resilience to climate change impacts. Eighty per cent of the city's population lives in informal settlements, but there is little effective land use management and a number of these settlements are on sites that flood regularly. Climate change impacts include sea level rise, rising temperatures and increased occurrence of extreme weather, including rainstorms and droughts, all of which present challenges to city and municipal governments that are struggling to reduce the development deficit. This paper discusses the measures being taken to address this deficit and where and how these measures can be accompanied by improved disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. © 2013 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Source

Mbuligwe S.E.,Ardhi University
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management | Year: 2012

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a critical environmental management issue because of the ubiquity of solid waste in the human environment and its adverse environmental and health implications. These catalyse attempts to devise new and refine the existing SWM strategies and practices. This paper discusses strategies and practices that enabled Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania, to reverse its once deplorable SWM situation. The paper highlights both the reported SWM improvement and the evidence of the improvement. To systematically crystallise the merits and demerits of the case study improved SWM system, a SWOT analysis is also presented. © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

News Article
Site: http://www.reuters.com

Ever since his mother's house was pulled down some three weeks ago, Abdallah Mkwama and his family have been squatting in a makeshift shack made of wooden planks and loosely fixed iron sheets. "It feels so bad sleeping outside, mosquitoes bite me, but we don't have the means to go anywhere else," he said. Despite the tough living conditions, seven-year-old Mkwama, who enrolled for free primary education this year, does not want miss lessons. Every day, he wakes up early to fold and store his dusty mattress so that no one steals it and starts getting ready for school. The pupil at Hananasif Primary School carefully uses water his mother has stored in discarded plastic bottles to brush his teeth. "My mother usually prepares breakfast for us, but sometimes she doesn't have the money to buy sugar," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. Mkwama, his older sister and parents are among hundreds of Dar es Salaam residents whose homes were reduced to rubble by the demolition of about 700 houses across the sprawling Msimbazi river flood plain. Broken bricks and pieces of wood are scattered everywhere. A damaged pit latrine gives off an unbearable stench. Children play hide-and-seek on a pile of debris nearby, seemingly oblivious to what has happened. "I am very worried for my children's health since we don't have running water and a toilet," said Mkwama's mother, Stamily Samata. The demolition exercise, which targets more than 8,000 houses built contrary to the city's 1970s masterplan, has been temporarily halted after some residents rushed to the court to spare their houses from being torn down. Last rainy season, a spate of unusually heavy downpours pounded Dar es Salaam, leaving dozens dead and wreaking havoc with the fragile city's infrastructure. The Tanzanian government has for many years tried to convince poor families to move out of flood-prone areas, but they have always resisted. Few have money to buy plots elsewhere, and the Msimbazi plain is close to the city center. The government estimates that more than 70 percent of Dar es Salaam's five million people live in informal, unplanned settlements that often lack basic sanitation. "I don't understand why the government has decided to punish us now even though we have lived here for so long," said Amina Masound, whose house in the Mkwajuni area was knocked down. "I cannot imagine what our lives will be like when the rainy season comes." Saidi Meck Sadiki, Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner, said the eviction exercise was in accordance with the country's environmental law which prohibits human activity on wetlands. "We have repeatedly warned them to vacate for their own safety but none of them heeded our call," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. While the government maintains that the destroyed homes were built illegally, some residents claim to possess valid title deeds. One of the fastest growing cities in Africa, Dar es Salaam faces enormous pressure from the growing number of migrants from rural areas. Rapid population growth is causing overcrowding, pollution, food shortages and insufficient water supplies. According to an "Economics of Climate Change Study" in 2011, Dar es Salaam's population will surge to over 10 million people by 2040, making it a megacity. It shows that about 140,000 people live in areas vulnerable to flooding. "Public authorities have the duty to plan and monitor how urban development is evolving, unfortunately this job is getting too hard for them," said Riziki Shemdoe, professor of land and urban planning at Ardhi University in Dar es Salaam. "Planners need to have a broad vision of development, taking into account the need of working classes, and the understanding of the sociology of the poor," he said. WHERE TO GO? The government had not made plans for those whose houses they destroyed before the demolition exercise began, saying the residents had defied directives issued by the city authorities. As a result, many families, like Mkwama's, are simply squatting on the same land in hastily built shelters. "We simply don't have the resources and alternative land to offer these people, they are simply too many," said Sadiki, the Regional Commissioner. "They should find rental accommodation somewhere else." He warned residents who are still squatting on the wetlands to immediately move out. Human rights campaigners, however, have criticized the government's move to evict low-income families without making plans for where they would go next. Yefred Myenzi, a land rights expert working with Haki Ardhi, a land rights campaign group in Dar es Salaam, said the evictions were conducted without a "human face". "There should at least be temporary shelter for the victims to avoid humanitarian suffering," he said.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2010

The social and economic impact of natural disasters in emerging economies and developing countries is growing. Many African countries have fragile economies unable to absorb the shocks caused by natural disasters enhanced by the increasing vulnerability of rapidly expanding urban areas. Climate change is likely to rapidly exacerbate this situation. The overall objective of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to manage climate risks, to reduce vulnerabilities and to improve coping capacity and resilience towards climate changes. CLUVA will explore these issues in selected African cities (Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, Douala, Ougadougou, St.Louis). The project aims at improving the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. CLUVA will assess the environmental, social and economic impacts and the risks of climate change induced hazards expected to affect urban areas (floods, sea-level rise, storm surges, droughts, heat waves, desertification, storms and fires) at various time frames. The project will develop innovative climate change risk adaptation strategies based on strong interdisciplinary components. CLUVA will be conducted by a balanced partnership of European and African partners. The 7 European partners will bring together some of EUs leading experts in climate, quantitative hazard and risk assessment, risk management, urban planners and social scientists. The 6 African partners from South Africa and from the Universities of the selected cities cover a similar range of expertises, making possible an effective integrated research effort. The project is structured in 6 WorkPackages dealing with climate change and impact models (WP1), multiple vulnerability (WP2), urban planning and governance as key issues to increase the resilience (WP3), capacity building and dissemination (WP4), coordination of the activities in the selected cities (WP5) and project management (WP6).

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