PubMed | Texas Baylor Sammons Cancer Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New York University, Bayer AG and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016
To assess the safety and tolerability of the small-molecule allosteric MEK inhibitor refametinib combined with sorafenib, in patients with advanced solid malignancies.This phase I dose-escalation study included an expansion phase at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Patients received refametinib/sorafenib twice daily for 28 days, from a dose of refametinib 5 mg plus sorafenib 200 mg to a dose of refametinib 50 mg plus sorafenib 400 mg. Plasma levels of refametinib, refametinib metabolite M17, and sorafenib were measured for pharmacokinetic assessments. Tumors were biopsied at the MTD for analysis of MEK pathway mutations and ERK phosphorylation.Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation cohort. The MTD was refametinib 50 mg twice daily plus sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. The most common treatment-related toxicities were diarrhea and fatigue. Refametinib was readily absorbed following oral administration (plasma half-life of 16 hours at the MTD), and pharmacokinetic parameters displayed near-dose proportionality, with less than 2-fold accumulation after multiple dosing. Another 30 patients were enrolled in the MTD cohort; 19 had hepatocellular carcinoma. The combination was associated with significantly reduced ERK phosphorylation in 5 out of 6 patients biopsied, with the greatest reductions in those with KRAS or BRAF mutations. Disease was stabilized in approximately half of patients, and 1 patient with colorectal cancer achieved a partial response at the MTD lasting approximately 1 year.In this phase I study, refametinib plus sorafenib was well tolerated, with good oral absorption, near-dose proportionality, and target inhibition in a range of tumor types. Clin Cancer Res; 22(10); 2368-76. 2015 AACR.