Ardahan, Turkey
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Bulut S.,Hacettepe University | Bodur E.,Hacettepe University | Colak R.,Ardahan University | Turnagol H.,Hacettepe University
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2013

This study was designed to investigate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and endurance exercise training-induced changes on post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (PH-LPL) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities along with leptin, insulin and lipid levels in plasma by a randomized double blind experiment. Eighteen sedentary male volunteers were randomly divided into CLA and Placebo (PLC) supplementation groups. Both groups underwent daily supplementation of either 3 g CLA or 3 g placebo for 30 days, respectively, and performed exercise on a bicycle ergometer 3 times per week for 30-40 min at 50% VO2 peak workload. For plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels and BChE activity fasting blood was used. For PH-LPL measurements, blood was collected 15 min after 50 IU/kg iv heparin injection. In all groups, there is a statistically significant decrease in BChE (p = 0.03, p = 0.02) and leptin (p = 0.002), insulin and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.02). Exercise with or without CLA supplementation decreased insulin levels and increased insulin sensitivity. PH-LPL activity was increased significantly in both groups, displaying increased fatty acid mobilization. We conclude that though CLA supplementation and exercise can affect these parameters, CLA is not more effective than exercise alone. Hence, a prolonged supplementation regime may be more effective. Taken together in our small study group, our findings display that BChE is a potential marker for synthetic function of liver, fat metabolism, an obesity marker, a function long overlooked. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oguzhan Yildiz P.,Ardahan University
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization | Year: 2017

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of chitosan coatings, enriched with thyme oil, on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage at 4 °C. Samples were analyzed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days for microbiological (i.e. total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas), chemical (i.e. pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances—TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen—TVB-N, peroxide value—PV) and sensory quality (texture, color, odor, general acceptability). Significant differences were determined among the groups in terms of total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (p < 0.05) during the storage. TVB-N, TBARS and peroxide values in the treated groups were lower than those in the untreated group. The best sensory quality was attained at the highest thyme oil concentration (2%) compared with control samples. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

The present study evaluated the effect of chitosan coating enriched with clove oil on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sensory changes during refrigerated storage at 4°C was done for a period of 15 days. Three different treatments were tested: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] clove EO added). Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for cooked fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. Panelists were asked to evaluate on a 5-point hedonic scale ranging from very poor (1) to very good (5) where: 1-very poor, 2-poor, 3-normal, 4-good and 5-very good. Sensory scores of each sample were at "good quality" after processing. Group C3 samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. © 2017 Author(s).

Ylldlz P.O.,Ardahan University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

The effects of chitosan coating enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage at 4°C was investigated. The treatments included the following: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] cinnamon EO added). The control and the coated fish samples were analysed for chemical (moisture, protein, lipid and ash) composition. The mean of moisture, protein, lipid and ash in the control samples (C1) were 70.3%, 20.1%, 2.6% and 1.2%, in coated samples (C2) 69.70%, 24.21%, 2.4% and 2.2% and coated+cinnamon oil samples (C3) 69.70%, 25.05%, 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in control groups were higher than other groups, but protein and ash contents were lower. Significant increases (p<0.05) in protein content were observed between samples, which subsequently decreased the moisture content of these samples. © 2017 Author(s).

The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period. © 2016 Author(s).

Kukrer S.,Ardahan University
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2017

This study applies ecological indices to determine the anthropogenic-based metal enrichment and potential ecological and ecotoxicological risks posed by each metal in the sediments of Lake Aktaş, NE Turkey. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations (St1–St9) within the Turkish boundary of Lake Aktaş and the heavy metal, total organic carbon %, CaCO3%, chlorophyll degradation products (chlorophyll-α), total sulfur %, and total phosphate % contents in the sediment samples were determined. Enrichment factor (EF), pollution load and potential ecological risk (PER) indices were calculated to shed light on the ecological effects of heavy metals. The metal content was ranked in descending order of Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Cd > Hg. The EF values ranged 0.87–1.0 for Cu, 1.04–1.14 for Pb, 1–1.08 for Zn, 0.88–0.95 for Ni, 0.99–1.24 for Mn, 0.89–0.93 for Fe, 0.82–1.01 for As, 0.96–1.19 for Cd, 0.94–1.0 for Cr, and 1.42–1.90 for Hg. Minimal contamination was found for Hg. Pollution load, PER, and toxic risk indices indicated no ecological risk currently. However, considering the PER index for metals individually, a moderate potential risk was detected for Hg. The data obtained from multivariate statistical analyses indicate that Hg and Mn originate from the atmosphere, while other elements have lithogenic sources. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Baygin M.,Ardahan University | Karakose M.,Firat University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Nowadays, the increasing use of group elevator control systems owing to increasing building heights makes the development of high-performance algorithms necessary in terms of time and energy saving. Although there are many studies in the literature about this topic, they are still not effective enough because they are not able to evaluate all features of system. In this paper, a new approach of immune system-based optimal estimate is studied for dynamic control of group elevator systems. The method is mainly based on estimation of optimal way by optimizing all calls with genetic, immune system and DNA computing algorithms, and it is evaluated with a fuzzy system. The system has a dynamic feature in terms of the situation of calls and the option of the most appropriate algorithm, and it also adaptively works in terms of parameters such as the number of floors and cabins. This new approach which provides both time and energy saving was carried out in real time. The experimental results comparatively demonstrate the effects of method. With dynamic and adaptive control approach in this study carried out, a significant progress on group elevator control systems has been achieved in terms of time and energy efficiency according to traditional methods. © 2013 Mehmet Baygin and Mehmet Karakose.

Results obtained from beachrock lying on the north coast of the antique city of Parion in Çanakkale province, NW Turkey, are presented based on field data, petrographic analyses, cement fabrics, and radiocarbon dating. Extending to 20 m offshore at a depth of -2 m, the studied 50-cm thick beachrock is poorly sorted lithic sandstone. Both exposed and submerged parts are characterized by sequentially precipitated marine phreatic and vadose cements composed of micrite encrustations with micro-organism borings, pseudopeloidal aggregates of high-Mg calcites with scalenohedral habits and meniscus bridges. Radiocarbon ages point to a deposition during the classical period when the sea level was below (between -1 and -1.5 m) that of the present. The beachrock witnesses a granule- and pebble-dominated wide beach prior to cementation, suggesting that Parions fortification walls were behind the coastline during this lowstand and raises questions concerning the existence of a harbor north of the city. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Duzguner V.,Ardahan University | Erdogan S.,Mustafa Kemal University
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Imidacloprid is the most important example of the neonicotinoid insecticides known to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in insects, and potentially in mammals. In the present study, oxidant and inflammatory responses to chronic exposure of imidacloprid was studied in rats. Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups as control and imidacloprid-exposed group (n=10. rat/each group). 1. mg/kg/BW/day imidacloprid was administrated orally by gavage for 30. days. After exposure, rats were euthanized and liver and brain samples were surgically removed for analyses. Imidacloprid application caused a significant increase in nitric oxide production in brain (p< 0.05) and liver (p< 0.001). The quantitative analyses of mRNA confirmed the finding that imidacloprid induced the mRNA transcriptions of the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS, nNOS) in brain and two isoforms (iNOS, eNOS) in the liver. Exposure to imidacloprid caused significant lipid peroxidation in plasma, brain (p< 0.001) and liver (p< 0.003). While the superoxide-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase activity was elevated in both tissues (p< 0.001), myeloperoxidase activity was increased only in the liver (p< 0.001). Antioxidant enzyme activities showed various alterations following exposure, but a significantly depleted antioxidant glutathione level was detected in brain (p< 0.008). Evidence of chronic inflammation by imidacloprid was observed as induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IFN-γ in the liver and brain. In conclusion, chronic imidacloprid exposure causes oxidative stress and inflammation by altering antioxidant systems and inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the liver and central nervous system of non-target organisms. © 2012.

Kukrer S.,Ardahan University
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2014

In this paper, the heavy metal levels (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cd, Cr, Hg), organic carbon, and chlorophyll degradation products were studied to prove their ecological effects in Lake Çildir, where fossil fuels are used as an energy source in the studied area for most of the year, and domestic waste from settlements is discharged directly into the lake. Sediment samples were collected from six sites on the northern shore of Çildir Lake, Turkey in November 2012. Enrichment (EF) and contamination factor (CF) values were determined, and Pollution Load (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk (PER) indices were calculated. Average concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments were, in descending order, Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, respectively. According to mean values, the source of these elements may be considered natural due to lack of enrichment in Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cr in the sediment samples. Regarding enrichment of As, Cd, Mn, and Hg, the highest EF belongs to Hg. PLI and PER values indicate there are moderate ecological risk in the lake.

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