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Celik S.,Bingöl University | Yilmaz O.,Ardahan University
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to find the best one among CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and CART (Classification and Regression Tree) data mining algorithms in the prediction of body weight (BW) from several body measurements (abdominal width (AW), body length (BL), chest circumference (CC), chest depth (CD), face length (FL), front shank circumference (FSC), head circumference (HC), head length (HL), head width (HW), leg length (LL), tail length (TL), rear chest width (RCW), rump elevation (RE), rump width (RW), withers height (WH)) measured easily from three Kangal (Karabash) dog color varieties (Dun/Fawn, Grizzle, and Ashy) maintained in Sivas and Konya provinces, Turkey. Several goodness-of-fit criteria (coefficient of determination (R2%), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2%), coefficient of variation (CV%), SD ratio, Root Mean Square Er ror (RMSE), Relative Approximation Error (RAE), Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Pearson correlation between actual and predicted values were estimated for describing the most suitable algorithm in terms of the predictive performance. r values are 0.846, 0.838 and 0.732 for CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and CART algorithms, respectively. RMSE values are 4.966, 5.083 and 6.349 for CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and CART algorithms, respectively. The most important predictors are BE of BW for all algorithms. Among the algorithms, CHAID provided the most appropriate predictive capability in the prediction of the BW characteristic. The heaviest average BW of 61.375 kg was obtained from the subgroup of those having FSC > 14 cm and RE > 80 cm. The secondly heaviest average BW (53.455kg) was found for the subgroup of those having FSC > 13 cm and 74.000 < RE ≤ 80 cm in Sivas province of Turkey. Consequently, it is hoped that the results of the study on the morphological characterization of Kangal dog varieties might be a good reference for next dog breeding studies. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

Oguzhan Yildiz P.,Ardahan University
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effect of essential oils (EOs) (thyme and rosemary) and packaging (vacuum and modified atmosphere - 50% CO2/+50% N2) on hot smoking rainbow trout during storage (4C) for 90 days. Fillets were conducted to microbiological (i.e., total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, C.botulinum, yeast and mold) and chemical (i.e., pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total volatile base nitrogen) analyses and sensory quality on 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days. In conclusion, EO treatment to smoking showed positive effect on shelf life, especially thyme oil showed more positive effect when compared with rosemary oil. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kukrer S.,Ardahan University | Buyukisik H.B.,Ege University
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

İzmir Bay has been one of most polluted bays of the Mediterranean for a long time. When the "Big Channel Project" was completed in 2000, sewage flow into the bay ended. Hence, the influence of creeks, which are the only source of water transportation to the inner bay, was investigated in the current study. Monthly samples of creek water and seawater were taken. Basic water quality variables and nutrients were measured. In addition, the phytoplankton community was arrayed into size fractions to assess the contribution of each size fraction to biomass and pigment concentrations. Analyses showed that the creek waters had very high nutrient concentrations. Although decreasing nutrient concentrations of the sea as compared to past years were detected, results of the analyses showed that the phytoplankton biomass was increased. Minimum and maximum values of nutrient concentrations and chlorophyll-a were 0.23-22.28 μM for ammonium, 1.54-11.77 μM for nitrate, 0.00-3.51 μM for nitrite, 1.99-41.94 μM for silicate, 0.00-5.96 μM for phosphate, and 5.03-30.26 μg/L for chlorophyll-a. Nanoplankton was the dominant phytoplankton group in the inner bay. An increment in picoplankton was detected towards the outer part of the bay. The microplankton biomass was correlated with NH+ 4-N, [Si(OH)4-Si], and o.PO4-P. [Si(OH)4-Si], o.PO4-P, and microplankton were the most important constituents in the inner bay. Consequently, controlling nutrient concentrations in the creeks might contribute to the cleaning process in İzmir Bay. © TÜBITAK.

Guliyev R.,Ardahan University
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2015

Borogypsum, formed during the production of boric acid, is discharged improperly or dumped into privately constructed dams, which contributes to environmental pollution. On the other hand, production of fertilizers containing boric acid and boron is an expensive process. The utilization of the waste borogypsum in the production of boron-containing fertilizers was investigated in this study. Fertilizers obtained from wastes are highly beneficial for the environment, and additionally, they contain phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur, calcium, and boron. Thus, industrial scale production of boron-containing fertilizers from borogypsum is an economically novel and environmental-friendly approach. This study aims at investigating the possible utilization of borogypsum for triple superphosphate production at the laboratory scale. The results of the study illustrate that it is possible to use waste borogypsum for production of triple superphosphate in a continuous-flow process. Thus, utilization of borogypsum is not only an alternative process but also allows the protection of the environment from fluorine and borogypsum wastes.

Baygin M.,Ardahan University | Karakose M.,Firat University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

Nowadays, the increasing use of group elevator control systems owing to increasing building heights makes the development of high-performance algorithms necessary in terms of time and energy saving. Although there are many studies in the literature about this topic, they are still not effective enough because they are not able to evaluate all features of system. In this paper, a new approach of immune system-based optimal estimate is studied for dynamic control of group elevator systems. The method is mainly based on estimation of optimal way by optimizing all calls with genetic, immune system and DNA computing algorithms, and it is evaluated with a fuzzy system. The system has a dynamic feature in terms of the situation of calls and the option of the most appropriate algorithm, and it also adaptively works in terms of parameters such as the number of floors and cabins. This new approach which provides both time and energy saving was carried out in real time. The experimental results comparatively demonstrate the effects of method. With dynamic and adaptive control approach in this study carried out, a significant progress on group elevator control systems has been achieved in terms of time and energy efficiency according to traditional methods. © 2013 Mehmet Baygin and Mehmet Karakose.

Results obtained from beachrock lying on the north coast of the antique city of Parion in Çanakkale province, NW Turkey, are presented based on field data, petrographic analyses, cement fabrics, and radiocarbon dating. Extending to 20 m offshore at a depth of -2 m, the studied 50-cm thick beachrock is poorly sorted lithic sandstone. Both exposed and submerged parts are characterized by sequentially precipitated marine phreatic and vadose cements composed of micrite encrustations with micro-organism borings, pseudopeloidal aggregates of high-Mg calcites with scalenohedral habits and meniscus bridges. Radiocarbon ages point to a deposition during the classical period when the sea level was below (between -1 and -1.5 m) that of the present. The beachrock witnesses a granule- and pebble-dominated wide beach prior to cementation, suggesting that Parions fortification walls were behind the coastline during this lowstand and raises questions concerning the existence of a harbor north of the city. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Duzguner V.,Ardahan University | Erdogan S.,Mustafa Kemal University
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Imidacloprid is the most important example of the neonicotinoid insecticides known to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in insects, and potentially in mammals. In the present study, oxidant and inflammatory responses to chronic exposure of imidacloprid was studied in rats. Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups as control and imidacloprid-exposed group (n=10. rat/each group). 1. mg/kg/BW/day imidacloprid was administrated orally by gavage for 30. days. After exposure, rats were euthanized and liver and brain samples were surgically removed for analyses. Imidacloprid application caused a significant increase in nitric oxide production in brain (p< 0.05) and liver (p< 0.001). The quantitative analyses of mRNA confirmed the finding that imidacloprid induced the mRNA transcriptions of the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS, nNOS) in brain and two isoforms (iNOS, eNOS) in the liver. Exposure to imidacloprid caused significant lipid peroxidation in plasma, brain (p< 0.001) and liver (p< 0.003). While the superoxide-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase activity was elevated in both tissues (p< 0.001), myeloperoxidase activity was increased only in the liver (p< 0.001). Antioxidant enzyme activities showed various alterations following exposure, but a significantly depleted antioxidant glutathione level was detected in brain (p< 0.008). Evidence of chronic inflammation by imidacloprid was observed as induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IFN-γ in the liver and brain. In conclusion, chronic imidacloprid exposure causes oxidative stress and inflammation by altering antioxidant systems and inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the liver and central nervous system of non-target organisms. © 2012.

Yldz P.O.,Ardahan University
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of essential oils (EO) (thyme and rosemary) on the quality of marinated rainbow trout during storage at 4ºC. Three different treatment were tested: C1; (control samples), C2; (marinating with 1% [v/w] rosemary EO added) and C3 (marinating with 1 % [v/w] thyme EO added). Fillets were subjected to microbiological (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mould), chemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) analyses and sensory quality testing throughout the storage period. Difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period. In conclusion, essential oils treatment to marinated had positive effect on shelf life rainbow trout, especially thyme oil showed more positive effect when compared with rosemary oil. © 2016, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

Karacali T.,Atatürk University | Cicek K.,Ardahan University
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2011

We have prepared various porous silicon (PS) structures with different surface conditions (any combination of oxidation, carbonization as well as thermal annealing) to increase the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) spectrum in the visible range. Strong white light (similar to day-light) emission was achieved by carrying out thermal annealing at 1100 °C after surface modification with 1-decene of anodic oxidized PS structures. Temperature-dependent PL measurements were first performed by gradually increasing the sample temperature from 10 to 300 K inside a cryostat. Then, we analyzed the measured spectrum of all prepared samples. After the analysis, we note that throughout entire measured spectrum, only two main peaks corresponding to blue and green-orange emission lines (which can be interpreted by quantum size effect and/or configuration coordinate model) were seem to be predominant for all temperature range. To further reveal and analysis these peaks, finally, measured data were inputted into the formula of activation energy of thermal excitation. We found that activation energies of blue and green-orange lines were approximately 49.3 and 44.6 meV, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kukrer S.,Ardahan University
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2014

In this paper, the heavy metal levels (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cd, Cr, Hg), organic carbon, and chlorophyll degradation products were studied to prove their ecological effects in Lake Çildir, where fossil fuels are used as an energy source in the studied area for most of the year, and domestic waste from settlements is discharged directly into the lake. Sediment samples were collected from six sites on the northern shore of Çildir Lake, Turkey in November 2012. Enrichment (EF) and contamination factor (CF) values were determined, and Pollution Load (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk (PER) indices were calculated. Average concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments were, in descending order, Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, respectively. According to mean values, the source of these elements may be considered natural due to lack of enrichment in Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cr in the sediment samples. Regarding enrichment of As, Cd, Mn, and Hg, the highest EF belongs to Hg. PLI and PER values indicate there are moderate ecological risk in the lake.

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