Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Ardabil, Iran

Ardabil University of Medical science , is a medical university in Ardabil Province of Iran. Located in north-west of Iran in the city of Ardabil, the university was established in 1993. It currently has 1549 students studying in 9 departments. The university administers all public hospitals in and around the city of Ardabil. The university is located near the beautiful lake of Shorabil. Ardebil medical school started at 1980.In 2013, Ardabil School of Pharmacy was established in the campus of the university. Wikipedia.

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Pourfarzi F.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: According to recent statistics, the breast cancer rate is growing fast in developing countries. In North West Iran, the incidence of breast cancer after esophageal and gastric cancers has the highest rate. Previous studies have also indicated that women in this region show reluctance to do breast cancer screening. There is a great need for change to promote breast cancer screening among women. Social marketing is a discipline that uses the systematic application of commercial marketing techniques to promote the adoption of behavior by the target audience.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present qualitative study, thirty-two women with breast cancer were interviewed about their experiences of breast cancer screening. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to elicit information specific to the 4 P's in social marketing.RESULTS: Three main categories emerged from the analysis: price, service and promotion. Subcategories related to these main categories included factors effective in increasing and decreasing cost of screening, current and desirable features of screening services, and weakness of promotion.CONCLUSIONS: Screening programs should be designed to be of low cost, to meet patients' needs and should be provided in suitable places. Furthermore, it is essential that the cultural beliefs of society be improved through education. It seems necessary to design an executive protocol for breast cancer screening at different levels of primary health care to increase the women's willingness to undergo screening.

Amirshahrokhi K.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences | Ghazi-Khansari M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Cytokine | Year: 2012

Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used in autoimmune disorders. It has been shown that thalidomide inhibits proinflammatory cytokines production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thalidomide on the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in mice. Diabetes was induced by multiple low-dose of streptozotocin (MLDS) injection. Mice were treated with thalidomide (300. mg/kg/day orally) for 21. days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin and nitrate/nitrite as well as pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Pathological examinations of the pancreas revealed that thalidomide reduced the islet inflammation (insulitis) and destruction of beta cells. Thalidomide treatment prevented hyperglycemia and preserved pancreatic insulin secretion in the diabetic mice. Thalidomide treatment also significantly decreased plasma levels of nitric oxide and pancreatic proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ)] while increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In conclusion, these findings indicate that thalidomide may have a protective effect against the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells during the development of MLDS-induced type 1 diabetes in mice. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Sam R.,San Francisco General Hospital | Feizi I.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2012

Understanding hypernatremia is at times difficult for many clinicians. However, hypernatremia can often be deciphered easily with some basic understanding of water and sodium balance. Here, the basic pathophysiological abnormalities underlying the development of sodium disorders are reviewed, and case examples are given. Hypernatremia often arises in the hospital, especially in the intensive care units due to the combination of (1) not being able to drink water; (2) inability to concentrate the urine (most often from having kidney failure); (3) osmotic diuresis from having high serum urea concentrations, and (4) large urine or stool outputs. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Yazdanbod A.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation | Year: 2010

There are few reports from Iran about the epidemiology and clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile and clinical features of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Northwest of Iran. This retrospective study covered the time period from 1998 to 2008 and included all patients of a private gasteroenterology clinic in the northwest of Iran, who had diagnosis of UC at the time of presentation or those whose diagnosis had been made later. In addition to description of epidemiology and clinical feature of disease, an attempt was made to identify factors associated with severity of disease. A total of 105 patients including 61 females (58.1%) were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 33.5 +/- 13.1 years. The median time interval from initiation of symptoms to diagnosis was 9 months. The commonest presentation was proctosigmoiditis. (48.6%). Among extra-intestinal manifestations, sclerosing cholangitis had the highest frequency and was found in 2 (1.9%) patients. Among all evaluated variables, only family income (the higher the income the more severe the disease) and cigarette smoking (inverse association) were find to have significant association with severity of disease. A case profile of patients with ulcerative colitis from Northwest Iran suggests that the disease is seen most commonly in the third decade of life with a female preponderance. Family income and smoking influenced the course of ulcerative colitis in Iranian patients.

Amirshahrokhi K.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences | Khalili A.-R.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Inflammation | Year: 2015

Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug. However, its chemotherapeutic use is restricted by serious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory mechanisms have a significant role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential nephroprotective effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in mice by a single injection of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with thalidomide (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days, beginning 24 h prior to the cisplatin injection. Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin was demonstrated by increasing plasma levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Cisplatin increased the renal production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition, kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) were increased by cisplatin. Biochemical results showed that thalidomide reduced cisplatin-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN. Thalidomide treatment also significantly reduced tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO, and NO and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, histological examination indicated that thalidomide ameliorated renal damage caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that thalidomide attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly by inhibition of inflammatory reactions. Taken together, our findings indicate that thalidomide might be a valuable candidate for the prevention of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Amirshahrokhi K.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2013

Thalidomide has been used in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Paraquat (PQ) poisoning causes severe lung injury. PQ-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis are due to its ability to induce oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effect of thalidomide on PQ-induced lung damage in a mouse model. Mice were injected with a single dose of PQ (20 mg/kg, i.p.), and treated with thalidomide (25 and 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for six days. Lung tissues were dissected six days after PQ injection. The results showed that thalidomide ameliorated the biochemical and histological lung alterations induced by PQ. Thalidomide decreased production of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition thalidomide reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide might be a valuable therapeutic drug in preventing the progression of PQ-induced pulmonary injury. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Amirshahrokhi K.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences | Bohlooli S.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Inflammation | Year: 2013

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural organosulfur compound that exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM on paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung and liver injury in mice. A single dose of PQ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) induced acute lung and liver toxicity. Mice were treated with MSM (500 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, and lung and liver tissues were collected for histological and biochemical analysis. Tissue samples were used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Blood samples were used to measure plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histological examination indicated that MSM decreased lung and liver damage caused by PQ. Biochemical results showed that MSM treatment significantly reduced tissue levels of MDA, MPO, and TNF-α, while increased the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH compared with PQ group. MSM treatment also significantly reduced plasma levels of ALT, GGT, and ALP. These findings suggest that MSM as a natural product attenuates PQ-induced pulmonary and hepatic oxidative injury. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Arzanlou M.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS) and inactivation of SpeB results in the significantly decreased virulence of the bacterium. The protein is secreted as an inactive zymogen of 40 KDa (SpeBz) and undergoes proteolytic truncation to result in a 28 KDa mature active protease (SpeBm). In this study the effect of allicin on the proteolytic activity of SpeBm was evaluated using azocasein assay. Allicin neutralized the SpeBm proteolytic activity in a concentration dependent manner (IC50 = 15.71 ± 0.45 μg/ml). The loss of activity was completely reversed by subsequent treatment with a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT; 10 mM final concentration), suggesting that allicin likely inhibits the SpeBm by forming a disulfide linkage with an active thiol group in its active site. This mechanism of action was further confirmed with the fact that DTT did not reverse the SpeBm activity in the presence of E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, which works specially by forming a thioether linkage with free sulfhydryl groups in enzymes active site. The MIC of allicin against GAS was found to be 32 μg/ml. Exposure of GAS culture to allicin (25 μg/ml) inhibited maturation of SpeBz to the SpeBm.In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that allicin inhibits the maturation of SpeBz and proteolytic activity of SpeBm and could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of GAS infections. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Arzanlou M.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences | Bohlooli S.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The presence of allicin in green garlic plant extracts was investigated. Allicin in aqueous extracts from green garlic leaf, shoot and young bulbs were determined by HPLC. Allicin was present at highest level in extracts from whole green garlic plant at 0.48 ± 0.01 mg/mL, followed by that in shoot and leaf extracts at 0.44 ± 0.00 and 0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively. The results obtained in this study offer green garlic as a new source of allicin, as green garlic plant is used as a favourite vegetable in many countries. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Amirshahrokhi K.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences | Khalili A.-R.,Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2015

Excessive ethanol ingestion causes gastric mucosal damage through the inflammatory and oxidative processes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of thalidomide on ethanolinduced gastric mucosal damage in mice. The animals were pretreated with vehicle or thalidomide (30 or 60 mg/kg, orally), and one hour later, the gastric mucosal injury was induced by oral administration of acidified ethanol. The animals were euthanized one hour after ethanol ingestion, and gastric tissues were collected to biochemical analyzes. The gastric mucosal lesions were assessed by macroscopic and histopathological examinations. The results showed that treatment of mice with thalidomide prior to the administration of ethanol dose-dependently reduced the gastric ulcer index. Thalidomide pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6], malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, thalidomide significantly inhibited ethanol-induced nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in gastric tissue. Histological observations showed that ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was attenuated by thalidomide pretreatment. It seems that thalidomide as an anti-inflammatory agent may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced mucosal damage by inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and reducing the production of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in gastric tissue. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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