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Rovaniemi, Finland

Uusikivi J.,University of Helsinki | Vahatalo A.V.,University of Helsinki | Granskog M.A.,Arctic Center | Granskog M.A.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Sommaruga R.,University of Innsbruck
Limnology and Oceanography

In the Baltic Sea ice, the spectral absorption coefficients for particulate matter (PM) were about two times higher at ultraviolet wavelengths than at photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) wavelengths. PM absorption spectra included significant absorption by mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) between 320 and 345 nm. In the surface ice layer, the concentration of MAAs (1.37 μg L -1) was similar to that of chlorophyll a, resulting in a MAAs-to-chlorophyll a ratio as high as 0.65. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) intensity and the ratio of UVR to PAR had a strong relationship with MAAs concentration (R 2 = 0.97, n = 3) in the ice. In the surface ice layer, PM and especially MAAs dominated the absorption (absorption coefficient at 325 nm: 0.73 m -1). In the columnar ice layers, colored dissolved organic matter was the most significant absorber in the UVR (< 380 nm) (absorption coefficient at 325 nm: 1.5 m -1). Our measurements and modeling of UVR and PAR in Baltic Sea ice show that organic matter, both particulate and dissolved, influences the optical properties of sea ice and strongly modifies the UVR exposure of biological communities in and under snow-free sea ice. © 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. Source

Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Humanities | Award Amount: | Year: 1997

This project aims to write the history of Dutch and Belgium scientific expeditions to the polar regions since 1875. Based on their historic involvement in the search for the North-Eastern passage to Asia, in 1594-1597, and Arctic whaling, the Dutch organized several expeditions to the Arctic after 1875. After 1897 Belgium also organized such expeditions, however, with the emphasis on the Antarctic. The following scientific disciplines were involved: anthropology, archeaeology, (marine)biology, ethnology, physical oceanography, geology, (physical) geography, meteorology and (terrestrial) magnetism.

Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Humanities | Award Amount: | Year: 2007

In the Core/Periphery model Polar Regions mostly are considered as Resource Frontier Regions (Sugden 1982) because after the discovery these regions are economically used to produce raw materials and fuel for the industries in the core regions of the world. After the hunt on seals, whales and fur animals, man discovered fossil fuels and minerals in the Arctic and started to mine coal around 1900. The coal mining is still going on in some places but at the moment large quantities of oil and gas are discovered and the exploitation of these natural resources is developing. Beside mining and drilling tourist cruises are organized on an increasing scale in many areas of the Arctic Region nowadays. In the Antarctic the economic exploitation was limited to sealing and whaling because of an internationally agreed moratorium on the mining of minerals for 50 years. Nowadays the Antarctic area is only exploited by the tourist industry. The exploitation of natural resources in Polar Regions is a good example of the way people are dealing with the natural resources in the world. Wasteful and unsparing large quantities of raw materials were exploited and transported to the industrial areas. This research will study the processes behind the exploitation of the natural resources in the Polar Regions. It will concentrate on the first decades of the 20th century industrial whaling when against all technological developments whales were processed in land station special built in the polar areas. By studying and comparing the remains of three land stations Green Harbour (Svalbard), Prince Olav Harbour on South Georgia and Hektor station on Deception Island, this research will study how efficient whales were processed and what the impact of this process was on the natural environment in the long term. The social circumstances in the land stations and the way the whalers adapted themselves to the polar circumstances play an important role as well in this research. By studying the remains of the land stations the project will study the technical developments the stations experienced in the first years, how they could exist beside the factory ships and how networks of entrepreneurs and the market in the core areas were determining the production of raw materials in the Resource Frontier Regions in the periphery. Last but not least archive research will be conducted to increase our knowledge about the role these stations have played in the ambitions of national governments to get political control on the Polar Regions and their natural resources.

Sinisalo A.,Arctic Center | Moore J.C.,Arctic Center | Moore J.C.,University of Oulu | Moore J.C.,Beijing Normal University | Moore J.C.,University of Oslo
Antarctic Science

We review the current scientific knowledge about Antarctic Blue Ice Areas (BIAs) with emphasis on their application for palaeoclimate studies. Substantial progress has been made since the review by Bintanja (1999), in particular dating the archive of ancient ice found on the surface of BIAs has progressed with advances in 14C measurements, tephrachronology, and geomorphological evidence giving better constraints to more sophisticated ice flow models. Flow modelling also provides information about past changes in ice flow velocities, accumulation rates and ice sheet elevation. The availability of gas composition in vertical cores from BIAs allows matching to well-dated global records of greenhouse gas variability over the last glacial-interglacial cycle and longer. It is clear from the limited number of studies to date that BIAs from different regions have quite different histories of formation and preservation, and that they are intimately linked to the response of their surrounding ice sheets to climate variability on glacial-interglacial time-scales. Looking to the future, climate records from BIAs are expected to provide information on variations in Southern Ocean processes as well as ice sheet evolution within the East Antarctic ice sheet at the thermal transition from cold based to warm based ice. © 2010 Antarctic Science Ltd. Source

Mustajoki J.,Tampere University of Technology | Saarikoski H.,Finnish Environment Institute | Marttunen M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Ahtikoski A.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management

Controversy between alternative uses of forests in Finnish Upper Lapland has been going on for decades, and in recent years it has been escalated to a serious conflict. The core of the conflict is the adverse impacts of forestry on old forests which are important grazing areas for reindeer and which are regarded as intact nature and wilderness areas. This paper describes the experiences of applying multi-criteria decision analysis interview approach on this conflict. The approach provides tools for structuring the problem and preferences of the stakeholders as well as for analyzing the effects of different alternatives in a common framework. We focus on the practical experiences gained from the application of this approach in this context. Multi-criteria decision analysis was found to be a useful approach to evaluate the economic, ecological and cultural aspects of this intense conflict. The obtained experiences also support the view that the approach works best when tightly integrated into the planning process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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