Saint Petersburg, Russia
Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, or AARI is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica. It is located in Saint Petersburg. The AARI was founded on March 3, 1920 as the Northern Research and Trade Expedition under the Scientific and Technical Department of the All-Union Council of State Economy. In 1925, the expedition was reorganized into the Institute of Northern Studies and five years later - into the All-Union Arctic Institute . In 1932, the institute was integrated into the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route . In 1948, they established the Arctic Geology Research Institute on the basis of the geology department of the All-Union Arctic Institute, which would subordinate to the Ministry of Geology of the USSR. In 1958, the All-Union Arctic Institute was renamed Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. In 1963, the AARI was incorporated into the Chief Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service under the Council of Ministers of the USSR .Throughout its history, the AARI has organized more than a thousand Arctic expeditions, including dozens of high-latitude aerial expeditions, which transported 34 manned drifting ice stations Severniy Polyus to Central Arctic. In 1955, the AARI participated in the organization of Antarctic research. In 1958, it began to organize and lead all of the Soviet Antarctic expeditions, which would later make many geographic discoveries. In 1968, the institute engaged in research of the areas of the Atlantic Ocean contiguous to the Arctic and Antarctica.The AARI has numerous departments, such as those of oceanography, glaciology, meteorology, hydrology or Arctic river mouths and water resources, geophysics, polar geography, and others. It also has its own computer center, ice research laboratory, experimental workshops, and a museum . Scientists, such as Alexander Karpinsky, Alexander Fersman, Yuly Shokalsky, Nikolai Knipovich, Lev Berg, Otto Schmidt, Rudolf Samoylovich, Vladimir Vize, Nikolai Zubov, Pyotr Shirshov, Nikolai Urvantsev, and Yakov Gakkel have all made their valuable contributions to the work of the AARI. In 1967, AARI was awarded the Order of Lenin. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Ocean.2010-1 | Award Amount: 14.85M | Year: 2011

The Arctic is engaged in a deep climatic evolution. This evolution is quite predictable at short (year) and longer scales (several decades), but it is the decadal intermediate scale that is the most difficult to predict. This is because the natural variability of the system is large and dominant at this scale, and the system is highly non linear due to positive and negative feedback between sea ice, the ocean and atmosphere. Already today, due to the increase of the GHG concentration in the atmosphere and the amplification of global warming in the Arctic, the impacts of climate change in the region are apparent, e.g. in the reduction in sea ice, in changes in weather patterns and cyclones or in the melting of glaciers and permafrost. It is therefore not surprising that models clearly predict that Artic sea ice will disappear in summer within 20 or 30 years, yielding new opportunities and risks for human activities in the Arctic. This climatic evolution is going to have strong impacts on both marine ecosystems and human activities in the Arctic. This in turn has large socio-economic implications for Europe. ACCESS will evaluate climatic impacts in the Arctic on marine transportation (including tourism), fisheries, marine mammals and the extraction of hydrocarbons for the next 20 years; with particular attention to environmental sensitivities and sustainability. These meso-economic issues will be extended to the macro-economic scale in order to highlight trans-sectoral implications and provide an integrated assessment of the socio-economic impact of climate change. An important aspect of ACCESS, given the geostrategic implication of Arctic state changes, will be the consideration of Arctic governance issues, including the framework UNCLOS (United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea). ACCESS dedicates a full work package to integrate Arctic climate changes, socioeconomic impacts and Arctic governance issues.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 5.32M | Year: 2008

The ERICON-AB project will generate the strategic, legal, financial and organisational frameworks required from National Governments and the European Commission to commit financial resources to the construction and running of the European Polar Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS. Scientific management frameworks will be assessed including mechanisms to handle dedicated large-scale multi-year or special mission specific research programmes. The strategic integration of the facility into the fabric of the European Research Area shall be achieved by connecting the national research priorities and the demand of ship time of the stakeholder countries with a European level facility. The relevance of the facility in promoting science and technology cooperation with EU strategic partner countries such as the Russian Federation will be specifically analysed. Deliverables will focus on moving the project from the preparatory phase to the construction phase by addressing key barriers especially in relation to engineering financial models that allow the mixed participation of EU member states and Non-EU partner countries. Consortium partners and legal experts will develop the legal/political frameworks for joint ownership and operation of a multi-country research facility. A dedicated legal implementation structure for managing and operating the AURORA BOREALIS will be proposed and its connection with other existing research assets such as Polar Stations, air support and supporting satellite assets will be analysed. The final deliverables of this project will be concerned with reaching a decision point and agreement with nations ready to move forward with the construction phase. It is anticipated that a series of natural decision points for agencies/governments to pass on their individual degree of integration into the project will be programmed in to the ERICON - AB Stakeholder councils meetings.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.3 | Award Amount: 6.68M | Year: 2010

Environmental change and climate change in particular, are expected to be most pronounced in the polar regions. For this reason, a multi-disciplinary research infrastructure covering all important elements of the coupled Earth System in the Arctic is a very valuable tool to quantify the ongoing global change and to verify the capability of Earth System models to predict future changes. The proposed EFRI project Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS) is intended to take this role. The main goal of the SIOS Preparatory Phase (SIOS-PP) project is to define, work out and decide on the formal framework needed to establish and operate the geographically distributed and thematically composed multi-national research infrastructure with a node function in different aspects, that SIOS will manifest. This covers, on one side, aspects common for all ESFRI initiatives, such as legal status, governance structure, financial strategy, a data management and utilization plan, and an (on- and offshore) logistics plan. In addition, SIOS-PP will address topics that are special for this infrastructure: a dedicated remote sensing strategy, an internal scientific and observational, as well as an international integration and cooperation plan, which will link SIOS to regional European Arctic and pan-Arctic scientific infrastructure networks. The SIOS-PP project will be carried out by a consortium of 27 partners from 14 countries including 4 non-EU and non-associated countries; three of the partners are national funding agencies. In addition, 19 associated partners with infrastructure or strong scientific interests on Svalbard will cooperate during the preparatory phase. The project has a duration of 3 years.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2008.4.1.1. | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2009

The present projectaims to develope an efficient ice compression and ice dynamics forecasting system which is precisely aimed in increasing the safety of winter navigation in dynamic ice conditions. This system is particularly efficient in case of large, AFRAMAX size or larger, oil tankers navigating in the Baltic, Okhotsk Sea and also in the western Russian Arctic. These tankers include a large parallel midbody and a hull form that is not especially suitable for ice breaking. A hull rupture of these tankers in compressive ice would lead to catastrophic consequences in the Baltic. Further, the Baltic icebreaking system including the ice services are now responding to the increased tanker traffic to and from the Russian terminals in the eastern Baltic. Similar change is likely to occur in the Okhotsk Sea, Russian western Arctic and possibly also in the White Sea. In developing ice service products applicable in these new sea areas, the present project contributes towards topics safety of ice navigation. Finally, it has been the observation of the Finnish and Swedish icebreaker services that the crews of the ice strengthened vessels do not have the necessary experience for winter navigation. The Baltic Icebreaker Management (BIM, see www.baltice.org) is making every effort to increase the awareness for winter operations and ice conditions also awareness about the ice service products. A timely, easily comprehended, standardized and homogenized operational advice and ice navigation in a form of ice charts and ice forecasts will reduce the risk of human error in interpreting ice conditions and selecting a route through ice. Project also aims to understand the effect of ship structures onto risk of compressive ice damages. This knowledge will used then to redesign some part of the structure so to achieve the best possible damage resistance with reduction in structural weight.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.npr.org

There were snowy, icy balls everywhere. Videos and photos from western Siberia, on the Gulf of Ob, showed an entire beach covered in snowballs that had apparently washed ashore. In one image published online by the Siberian Times, a woman sat on the frozen balls. In another, a dog ran near the balls, which had also formed what looked like a vertical mass of balls mashed together into an icy ball-wall. The BBC reports that the balls started washing up about two weeks ago. They're strung along some 11 miles of coast and are said to range from about the size of a tennis ball up to almost 3 feet across. Here's a video of the beach shot by someone named Valery Togo, who told the Russian news site Vesti Yamal that he lives in the nearby town of Nyda, which is on the Yamal Peninsula just above the Arctic Circle. The BBC reports the chilled orbs that washed ashore "result from a rare environmental process where small pieces of ice form, are rolled by wind and water, and end up as giant snowballs." It adds: "Russian TV quoted an explanation from Sergei Lisenkov, press secretary of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute: " 'As a rule, first there is a primary natural phenomenon — sludge ice, slob ice. Then comes a combination of the effects of the wind, the lay of the coastline, and the temperature and wind conditions.' " 'It can be such an original combination that it results in the formation of balls like these.' " The Collins English Dictionary defines "slob ice" as "sludgy masses of floating ice" in Canadian English. Rare and original as the ball-forming process might be, this is not the first time humans have witnessed these globular creations. In 2010, a Chicago Tribune video showed snowballs that washed up along Lake Michigan. In 2015, a man waded into the water — again in Lake Michigan — to heft a couple of frozen balls himself, and videotaped it. He and other witnesses to the snowball phenomenon have noted that the main body of water is not frozen even though the balls are. That same year, waves of icy spheres turned a Maine lake into an undulating ball-mass, captured on video by a Facebook user called Stone Point Studio.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.npr.org

There were snowy, icy balls everywhere. Videos and photos from western Siberia, on the Gulf of Ob, showed an entire beach covered in snowballs that had apparently washed ashore. In one image published online by the Siberian Times, a woman sat on the frozen balls. In another, a dog ran near the balls, which had also formed what looked like a vertical mass of balls mashed together into an icy ball-wall. The BBC reports that the balls started washing up about two weeks ago. They're strung along some 11 miles of coast and are said to range from about the size of a tennis ball up to almost 3 feet across. Here's a video of the beach shot by someone named Valery Togo, who told the Russian news site Vesti Yamal that he lives in the nearby town of Nyda, which is on the Yamal Peninsula just above the Arctic Circle. The BBC reports the chilled orbs that washed ashore "result from a rare environmental process where small pieces of ice form, are rolled by wind and water, and end up as giant snowballs." It adds: "Russian TV quoted an explanation from Sergei Lisenkov, press secretary of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute: " 'As a rule, first there is a primary natural phenomenon — sludge ice, slob ice. Then comes a combination of the effects of the wind, the lay of the coastline, and the temperature and wind conditions.' " 'It can be such an original combination that it results in the formation of balls like these.' " The Collins English Dictionary defines "slob ice" as "sludgy masses of floating ice" in Canadian English. Rare and original as the ball-forming process might be, this is not the first time humans have witnessed these globular creations. In 2010, a Chicago Tribune video showed snowballs that washed up along Lake Michigan. In 2015, a man waded into the water — again in Lake Michigan — to heft a couple of frozen balls himself, and videotaped it. He and other witnesses to the snowball phenomenon have noted that the main body of water is not frozen even though the balls are. That same year, waves of icy spheres turned a Maine lake into an undulating ball-mass, captured on video by a Facebook user called Stone Point Studio.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: news.yahoo.com

Why Are Thousands of Snowballs Popping Up on a Siberian Beach? Preparing for an epic snowball fight this winter? The best place to stock up on ammo may be a beach in Siberia, where thousands of huge, perfectly round snowballs are piling up, according to news reports. But where are these frozen orbs coming from? Villagers near the Gulf of Ob in Siberia discovered the snowballs along an 11-mile (18 kilometers) stretch of the beach, reported the Siberian Times. The snowballs range from the size of a tennis ball (about 2.7 inches, 6.86 centimeters) to almost 3 feet (1 meter) across. Though they look strange, the orbs are naturally occurring, experts say. [Images: One-of-a-Kind Places on Earth] "It's a rare natural phenomenon," Sergey Lisenkov, a spokesperson for the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), told the Siberian Times. "As a rule, grease ice forms first, slush. And then a combination of the action of the wind, the outlines of the coastline, and the temperature may lead to the formation of such balls." According to news reports, the snowballs first formed in late October, after water in the Gulf of Ob rose and covered the beach in ice. Just as kids roll snowballs along a snow-covered surface to create bigger spherical creations, ice on the beach rolled along the sand as the tides receded, creating the frozen orbs. Area residents said the phenomenon was a surprise, and had not happened previously. "Even old-timers say they see this phenomenon for the first time," Valery Akulov, from the village administration, told the Siberian Times. A similar phenomenon has occurred along Lake Michigan, where boulder-size ice balls can form in winter months. When chunks of the ice sheets that cover parts of the lake in winter break off, they churn in the waves and become ice spheres. Snow rollers are another form of naturally occurring snowballs that can invade during winter months. Snow rollers occur only in the right conditions: a combination of light, sticky snow; strong (but not too strong) winds; and cold temperatures, according to the National Weather Service. When snow-covered landscapes are blasted by blustery winds, the snow can be sculpted into doughnuts, hollow tubes and snowballs.

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