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Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, or AARI is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica. It is located in Saint Petersburg. The AARI was founded on March 3, 1920 as the Northern Research and Trade Expedition under the Scientific and Technical Department of the All-Union Council of State Economy. In 1925, the expedition was reorganized into the Institute of Northern Studies and five years later - into the All-Union Arctic Institute . In 1932, the institute was integrated into the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route . In 1948, they established the Arctic Geology Research Institute on the basis of the geology department of the All-Union Arctic Institute, which would subordinate to the Ministry of Geology of the USSR. In 1958, the All-Union Arctic Institute was renamed Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. In 1963, the AARI was incorporated into the Chief Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service under the Council of Ministers of the USSR .Throughout its history, the AARI has organized more than a thousand Arctic expeditions, including dozens of high-latitude aerial expeditions, which transported 34 manned drifting ice stations Severniy Polyus to Central Arctic. In 1955, the AARI participated in the organization of Antarctic research. In 1958, it began to organize and lead all of the Soviet Antarctic expeditions, which would later make many geographic discoveries. In 1968, the institute engaged in research of the areas of the Atlantic Ocean contiguous to the Arctic and Antarctica.The AARI has numerous departments, such as those of oceanography, glaciology, meteorology, hydrology or Arctic river mouths and water resources, geophysics, polar geography, and others. It also has its own computer center, ice research laboratory, experimental workshops, and a museum . Scientists, such as Alexander Karpinsky, Alexander Fersman, Yuly Shokalsky, Nikolai Knipovich, Lev Berg, Otto Schmidt, Rudolf Samoylovich, Vladimir Vize, Nikolai Zubov, Pyotr Shirshov, Nikolai Urvantsev, and Yakov Gakkel have all made their valuable contributions to the work of the AARI. In 1967, AARI was awarded the Order of Lenin. Wikipedia.

Gabis I.P.,Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2012

As is well known, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of wind in the equatorial stratosphere has a significant influence on the processes not only at tropical but also at middle and high latitudes in both stratosphere and troposphere. Consequently, a forecasting the dates of QBO-phase (W or E) transitions is required for the solution of many problems (for instance, for investigation of possible climate changes, for studying of solar activity effects in atmospheric phenomena, for predicting the trends of various atmospheric parameters, etc.). The type of QBO-phase is commonly determined by the zonal wind direction at fixed altitude. The quasi-biennial alternations of wind direction are related with a successive descent of easterly and westerly wind regimes. The paper describes the peculiarities of the wind evolution during QBO-cycle and reveals that the easterly regime propagates downward always with stop at some altitude in the range 20-40. hPa. This time period (no less than three months) of the easterly descent interruption is termed as the stagnation stage. Seasonal regularities of stagnation stage cause the discreteness of QBO-cycle period. If the interval between beginnings of successive stagnation stages is identified as a QBO-cycle length, it appears that no QBO-period other than 24, 30, or 36 months can be realized. The QBO-cycle period is unambiguously related with the stagnation duration that allows making an early forecast of the QBO-phase transition dates. The paper discusses the stagnation stage features occurring during QBO-cycles of different period, and describes the technique of forecasting the QBO-cycle evolution by analyzing the vertical profiles of wind speed. The study is based on experimental observation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere during 1953-2011. It is shown that the previous quasi-biennial cycle has begun in January 2009, lasted for 30 months and completed in June 2011. The current cycle has begun in July 2011, will last for 30 months and will end in December 2013. Subsequent cycle will begin in January 2014. The QBO-phase transition dates for different height levels are determined for all months up to April 2014. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kharitonov V.V.,Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
Cold Regions Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The paper presents the investigation results of morphometric characteristics of three first-year ice ridges conducted in March-June 2011 at «North Pole-38» drifting station. The height of the ice ridge sail ranged within 3.3-6.1. m; keel draft, from 10.2 to 18.9. m. These studies were conducted using electric thermal drilling with computer recording of the penetration rate. Boreholes were drilled along the cross-section of the ridge crest at 0.5. m intervals. Cross-sectional profiles of ice ridges are illustrated. In each borehole, ice ridge porosity was calculated as the ratio of the length of all voids to total length of the borehole. Distribution of ice ridge porosity along the cross-section seems to be rather regular. Depth-wise distribution of volume content of solid ice phase is shown for the investigated ice ridges. Average thickness of consolidated layer of ice ridges ranged within 0.8 . . . 2.6. m. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lukin V.V.,Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute | Vasiliev N.I.,Saint Petersburg State University
Annals of Glaciology | Year: 2014

This paper considers the state of the deep ice borehole 5G at the Russian Antarctic Vostok station after penetration to the surface water of Vostok Subglacial Lake. It discusses the peculiar features of drilling the 'fresh frozen' lake water that has risen in the borehole and the technology for subsequent study of the lake water layer via borehole 5G filled with a kerosene-Freon®mixture. The extremely high rise of lake water via the borehole is attributed to a hydraulic fracture at the side of the borehole, which diverted a large amount of drilling fluid. The proposed technology for the study of the water layer envisages minimal environmental impact and excludes penetration of any of the kerosene-Freon1 mixture to the water layer. This technology has been presented several times at different international forums. There was no critical comment on the Environmental Impact Assessment of the technology at the 37th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in 2014 and it was adopted for implementation.

Gabis I.P.,Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2014

Equatorial total column ozone variations with quasi-biennial periodicity are described by paying attention to their coupling with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of zonal wind in equatorial stratosphere. Analysis is made for the 35-year time interval from 1978 to 2013 using the zonal mean total ozone (TOZ) data in latitude band from 5°S to 5°N derived from satellite measurements by means of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The study was performed using strong seasonal regularities of the wind QBO and the discrete variation of the QBO-period revealed earlier. The forecast of the wind QBO evolution made in Gabis (2012) is fully justified. The comparison between predicted and actually observed changes of the height wind structure shows the prominent accordance, which confirms the forecast validity. It is shown that variations of deseasonalized TOZ are in strong coupling with changes of equatorial wind QBO that coincides with the numerous previous researches. However our results contradict the assumption about quite complicated ozone response in the equatorial region due to continuously varying with time relationship between annual and quasi-biennial cycles and irregularly variable wind QBO-period. The total ozone changes actually observed clearly corresponds to the mean ozone variations calculated for different QBO scenarios and aligned according to the sequence of QBO scenarios already occurred in fact. This close association indicates the possibility of forecasting the equatorial total ozone QBO based on the predicted wind QBO. © 2014 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Polyakov I.V.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Pnyushkov A.V.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Timokhov L.A.,Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

This analysis evaluates the thermal state of the intermediate (depth range of 150-900 m) Atlantic Water (AW) of the Arctic Ocean, beginning in the 1950s and with particular focus on the transition from the 1990s to the 2000s and on changes during the 2000s. Using an extensive array of observations, the authors document AWwarming trends across various time scales and demonstrate that the 2000s were exceptionally warm, with no analogy since the 1950s or probably in the history of instrumental observations in the Arctic Ocean. Warming in the recent decade was dominated by a warmAWpulse in addition to the underlying trend. Since 1997, the Canadian Basin experienced a faster warming rate compared with the Eurasian Basin. The relative role of the AW warmth in setting the net energy flux and mass balance of the Arctic sea ice is still under debate. Additional carefully orchestrated field experiments are required in order to address this question of ongoing Arctic climate change. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

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