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Chen C.-C.,Tung Fang Design Institute | Lee C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen J.-L.,Architecture and Building Research Institute
Applied System Innovation - Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied System Innovation, ICASI 2015 | Year: 2016

In the subtropical climate of Taiwan, indoor building materials have a significant impact on the poor indoor air quality, which leads to health problems and increased risks of cancer. Currently, the “Green building materials labels” and the Indoor Air Quality Act have been promoted to control the source of pollution, namely the fugitive pollutants of the building materials and the air concentration in the indoor space. Emphasis is placed on the advanced administrative control of the Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) to reduce the harm that could be caused by the fugitive pollutants of the indoor building materials to health. This study adopted the fugitive emission database of 645 pieces of the building materials with a green label, test, and verification of the fugitive emission of the seven small pieces of the building materials, numerical statistics and analysis, and literature analysis to research the control of the evaluation factors of fugitive TVOC from green building materials in Taiwan. The purpose of this is to prevent other toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from affecting the indoor air quality, effectively controlling the harm to residents, reducing the energy consumption of the air conditioning for removing pollutants through ventilation, and reducing the carbon emissions, and protect the environment. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Lee T.-K.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Chen C.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Hwa K.,Taoyuan Innovation Institute of Technology | Pan A.D.E.,Western Region Infrastructure Sector
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings | Year: 2014

Six sets of large-scale, square, reinforced concrete columns are tested under monotonically static axial compression loads. The primary variables are type of crosstie engagement, crosstie placement offset and type of hoop. The tests confirm that the crosstie hook engaging the hoop or engaging both the hoop and the longitudinal steel bars is better than just engaging the longitudinal steel bar. It is observed that the effect of not altering end for end along the longitudinal reinforcement is not significant to the efficiency of the crossties. Hoops composed of two overlapped L-shape ties, with a 1358 hook at each end, in reinforced concrete columns gave acceptable performance, and it is convenient to facilitate the fabrication of reinforcing cages using that set-up. However, the effectiveness under cyclic loading needs further study. © ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.


Ching J.,National Taiwan University | Yang Z.-Y.,Tamkang University | Shiau J.-Q.,SJQ Geotechnical Professional Engineers Office | Chen C.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute
Structural Safety | Year: 2013

The estimation of rock pressure induced by an excavation/cut in sedimentary rocks is addressed in this study. A simplified stochastic model is proposed to model this rock pressure to account for sliding along parallel bedding planes as well as random friction angles on these bedding planes. Simulations show that the classical Rankine and Coulomb theories typically give active pressures much larger than those predicted by the proposed model. A simplified reliability-based design approach is developed to calibrate the required partial factors for the determination of design rock pressure. The proposed approach is demonstrated over a case study for northern Taiwan. Design charts are developed to facilitate the determination of design rock pressures induced by excavation/cut in sedimentary rocks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee C.-H.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Chiou Y.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Chiou Y.-J.,National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2011

This study proposes a numerical model to investigate the behavior of steel beam-to-column connections in fires. Two strategies have been employed to transfer thermal results from a fire simulation to structural analysis. A full scale fire test was performed on a steel beam-to-column connection following the ISO 834 standard fire curve; it was simulated to verify the proposed methods. The wall temperatures obtained by FDS were used as an interface for fire exposure on the surface of the structure. The numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the size effect of the furnace and a sensitivity analysis on insulation materials had been studied. Two reduced beam sections were analyzed and compared with the simulation results of an unreduced beam section. Both sections were able to withstand the severity of the blaze with the runway phenomenon occurred after a similar period of time for each beam. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liang H.-H.,National United University | Chen C.-P.,China Medical University at Taichung | Hwang R.-L.,National United University | Shih W.-M.,National United University | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2014

The preservation of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is key to the well-being and productivity of office occupants. In Taiwan, the green building certification system established IEQ criteria to evaluate the performance of buildings in acoustics, lighting, ventilation and decoration but not the performance in delivering thermal comfort. This study investigated and compared the green and conventional office buildings in middle Taiwan on various aspects of IEQ during a period of active air-conditioning use. Among the monitored environmental variables, the levels of noise, illumination, and carbon dioxide in both types of buildings were in compliance with international or Taiwan's regulatory standards, but not that of volatile organic compounds. The degrees of overall IEQ satisfaction as well as the proportion of occupants voting for satisfaction in the green buildings were both greater than their counterparts in the conventional buildings. Of the specific areas of IEQ evaluated, including the acoustics, lighting, perception of thermal comfort of the occupants toward the thermal environment, and indoor air quality, a statistically significant difference was found between the mean score of satisfaction in the green buildings and that in the conventional buildings. The occupants sharing a concern on energy conservation were more amenable to slightly deficient IEQ. The system of green building certification in Taiwan was able to facilitate proper IEQ performance of the buildings, although a re-visit of the current criteria to incorporate thermal comfort-related criteria may be adequate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen C.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Hsieh W.-D.,National Cheng Kung University | Hu W.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Building and Environment | Year: 2010

Experiments were conducted in a full-scale model room equipped with both movable and fixed fire loads to explore fire growth and spread via heat release rates, indoor air temperature and species concentration. The room space is a brick structure that measures 5.7 m in interior length, 4.7 m in width and 2.4 m in ceiling height. The northeast and southeast corners each feature a 2.1 m × 0.9 m open doorway. Numerical simulations with parameter adaptation were carried out using FDS software to predict the fire features and were compared with the experimental results. In this study, the material properties and oxygen limit settings in the FDS software were tested to explore their influence on the tendency of heat release rate and on the total amount of heat release. The results show that the heat release rate from the FDS simulations is comparable to the full-scale experiment results during the fire growth period. Temperature profile near ceiling can be modeled well. In the full-involvement burning and decaying periods, the qualitative trends were identical, although the simulated value differed greatly from the experimental result. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lai C.-m.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen K.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Tzeng C.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Building and Environment | Year: 2010

Experiments were conducted in a full-scale model office equipped with movable and fixed fire loads to explore the influence of ignition source (movable fire load(s)) conditions on smoke detector and sprinkler actuation. The interior plan dimension is 5.7 m × 4.7 m and the net ceiling height is 3.3 m. Both northeast and southeast wings have a 2.1 m × 0.9 m single door to be opened. Seven fire scenarios (seven different ignited fire load configurations) under natural ventilation were investigated experimentally. The results show that the amount of fire load at the initial stage in a room fire does not markedly affect smoke generation and does not significantly impact the actuation time of the smoke detectors. When the fire source is located near a corner, the plume corner effect greatly increases; smoke detectors and sprinklers can activate quickly and effectively actuate the fire suppression. When the fire source is located in the room's center, given the uncertainty regarding smoke detector and sprinkler actuation, it may not be possible to control the fire spread. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Tsai M.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Fire Sciences | Year: 2010

Experiments were conducted in a full-scale model office equipped with movable and fixed fire loads to explore the influence of ignition source location (movable fire load(s)) on fire spread. The office space was a brick structure that measured 6 m in interior length, 5 m in width, and 3.3 m in ceiling height, and was equipped with a sprinkler system that was used as a sensor, but not for suppression. The southeast corner of the room featured a 2.1 m - 0.9 m open doorway. Four fire scenarios (four different ignited movable fire configurations) were investigated experimentally. The results show that when the movable fire load is close to the fixed fire load, the fire becomes more intense. The concentrated movable fire load configuration also increases the initial fire intensity. © The Author(s), 2010.


Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Ho M.-C.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Fire Sciences | Year: 2010

The characteristics of, prediction models for, and experimental data pertaining to flashover in full-scale room fires were first reviewed. Then, initiation, growth, full development, and decay of three office fire scenarios were experimentally explored using a 10 MW fire test facility and continuous online combustion gas analysis. The conditions for flashover were investigated and compared with correlations in the literature. The model office compartment is an aerated lightweight concrete structure with dimensions of 5 m × 6 m and with a net room height of 2.4-3.3 m. The results show that the measured minimum heat release rate at flashover is consistent with the correlations of Babrauskas [5] and McCaffrey et al. [6]. Based on the fundamental definition of flashover using the 'energy-filling' concept it is possible to predict the flashover time via a case-based reasoning method. However, more work is needed to further validate this concept. © 2010 SAGE Publications.


Ju R.-S.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Ju R.-S.,University of Belize | Lee H.-J.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Chen C.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Tao C.-C.,Architecture and Building Research Institute
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2012

In a multistory building frame, stiff reinforced concrete (RC) infill walls may be terminated above the first story for architectural purposes, which may create a soft-first-story structure. To eliminate this detrimental situation, this paper proposes to separate the RC infill wall from the steel moment frame by slits. An experimental program of four one-bay-by-one-story steel moment frame specimens along with pushover analyses of multistory frame models were presented to validate the proposed idea. This study conducted cyclic loading tests on a total of four moment-resisting-frame specimens, which included one bare frame; one with ordinary RC infill wall; and two with side slits between RC wall and frame members. Furthermore, pushover analyses of multistory frame models with soft first story configurations were also conducted to illustrate the effect of RC infill walls with or without slit separation. Both experimental and analytical results showed that the stiff RC infill wall dominated the lateral resistance and drift capacity of the test specimens, and that by adding slit-separated features at the edges of infill walls improved the drift capacity. It is concluded that the slit-separated features can be a viable option to eliminate the soft-story problem caused by vertically irregular configuration of RC infill walls. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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