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Lai C.-m.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen K.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Tzeng C.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Building and Environment | Year: 2010

Experiments were conducted in a full-scale model office equipped with movable and fixed fire loads to explore the influence of ignition source (movable fire load(s)) conditions on smoke detector and sprinkler actuation. The interior plan dimension is 5.7 m × 4.7 m and the net ceiling height is 3.3 m. Both northeast and southeast wings have a 2.1 m × 0.9 m single door to be opened. Seven fire scenarios (seven different ignited fire load configurations) under natural ventilation were investigated experimentally. The results show that the amount of fire load at the initial stage in a room fire does not markedly affect smoke generation and does not significantly impact the actuation time of the smoke detectors. When the fire source is located near a corner, the plume corner effect greatly increases; smoke detectors and sprinklers can activate quickly and effectively actuate the fire suppression. When the fire source is located in the room's center, given the uncertainty regarding smoke detector and sprinkler actuation, it may not be possible to control the fire spread. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Ho M.-C.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Fire Sciences | Year: 2010

The characteristics of, prediction models for, and experimental data pertaining to flashover in full-scale room fires were first reviewed. Then, initiation, growth, full development, and decay of three office fire scenarios were experimentally explored using a 10 MW fire test facility and continuous online combustion gas analysis. The conditions for flashover were investigated and compared with correlations in the literature. The model office compartment is an aerated lightweight concrete structure with dimensions of 5 m × 6 m and with a net room height of 2.4-3.3 m. The results show that the measured minimum heat release rate at flashover is consistent with the correlations of Babrauskas [5] and McCaffrey et al. [6]. Based on the fundamental definition of flashover using the 'energy-filling' concept it is possible to predict the flashover time via a case-based reasoning method. However, more work is needed to further validate this concept. © 2010 SAGE Publications. Source


Chen C.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Hsieh W.-D.,National Cheng Kung University | Hu W.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Building and Environment | Year: 2010

Experiments were conducted in a full-scale model room equipped with both movable and fixed fire loads to explore fire growth and spread via heat release rates, indoor air temperature and species concentration. The room space is a brick structure that measures 5.7 m in interior length, 4.7 m in width and 2.4 m in ceiling height. The northeast and southeast corners each feature a 2.1 m × 0.9 m open doorway. Numerical simulations with parameter adaptation were carried out using FDS software to predict the fire features and were compared with the experimental results. In this study, the material properties and oxygen limit settings in the FDS software were tested to explore their influence on the tendency of heat release rate and on the total amount of heat release. The results show that the heat release rate from the FDS simulations is comparable to the full-scale experiment results during the fire growth period. Temperature profile near ceiling can be modeled well. In the full-involvement burning and decaying periods, the qualitative trends were identical, although the simulated value differed greatly from the experimental result. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lai C.-M.,National Cheng Kung University | Tsai M.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute | Lin T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Fire Sciences | Year: 2010

Experiments were conducted in a full-scale model office equipped with movable and fixed fire loads to explore the influence of ignition source location (movable fire load(s)) on fire spread. The office space was a brick structure that measured 6 m in interior length, 5 m in width, and 3.3 m in ceiling height, and was equipped with a sprinkler system that was used as a sensor, but not for suppression. The southeast corner of the room featured a 2.1 m - 0.9 m open doorway. Four fire scenarios (four different ignited movable fire configurations) were investigated experimentally. The results show that when the movable fire load is close to the fixed fire load, the fire becomes more intense. The concentrated movable fire load configuration also increases the initial fire intensity. © The Author(s), 2010. Source


Ching J.,National Taiwan University | Yang Z.-Y.,Tamkang University | Shiau J.-Q.,SJQ Geotechnical Professional Engineers Office | Chen C.-J.,Architecture and Building Research Institute
Structural Safety | Year: 2013

The estimation of rock pressure induced by an excavation/cut in sedimentary rocks is addressed in this study. A simplified stochastic model is proposed to model this rock pressure to account for sliding along parallel bedding planes as well as random friction angles on these bedding planes. Simulations show that the classical Rankine and Coulomb theories typically give active pressures much larger than those predicted by the proposed model. A simplified reliability-based design approach is developed to calibrate the required partial factors for the determination of design rock pressure. The proposed approach is demonstrated over a case study for northern Taiwan. Design charts are developed to facilitate the determination of design rock pressures induced by excavation/cut in sedimentary rocks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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