Tunnicliffe V.,University of Victoria |
Tyler J.,University of Victoria |
Tyler J.,Archipelago Marine Research Ltd. |
Dower J.F.,University of Victoria
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013
Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an unusually broad habitat association, may be restricted in its overall range to this region of isolated volcanoes with active hydrothermalism. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Nelson T.A.,University of Victoria |
Gillanders S.N.,University of British Columbia |
Harper J.,Coastal and Ocean Resources Inc. |
Morris M.,Archipelago Marine Research Ltd.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011
The density of human populations in nearshore areas is more than three times the global average and is one example of why monitoring sensitive nearshore environments is essential. In this paper we outline a method for map-based monitoring of nearshore flora and epifauna using the seabed imaging and mapping system (SIMS) and geographic analysis. This system uses underwater video and sidescan sonar to systematically inventory and classify nearshore habitats. Species presence and abundance were mapped in 2006 and 2009 for a coastal area of British Columbia, Canada, and represented in a geographic information system (GIS). Spatial statistics were applied to maps of change in species abundance, and hot spots of floral and epifaunal change were identified. While minimal overall change within species groups occurs over 3 years, local areas of significant change were found near the marina entrance and the Washington State ferry terminal, where marine boat traffic may be affecting vegetation. The use of spatial statistics with this method reduces the effects of seasonal variability, minimizes impact of data errors, and identifies statistically significant hot spots of change. We have also demonstrated that SIMS generates suitable data for change detection and monitoring. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2011.
Stanley R.D.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans |
McElderry H.,Archipelago Marine Research Ltd. |
Mawani T.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans |
Koolman J.,2286 Henlyn Drive
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2011
Technology-based fishery monitoring, or electronic monitoring (EM), has emerged as an alternative to human observers and is being applied in a variety of fisheries. The method records sensor and image data from fishing operations, so can be used to provide 100% monitoring of catches and fishing activity. Alternatively, EM can be used to audit catch data self-reported by harvesters. If the random audit indicates that these data are sufficiently accurate, they can provide useful catch estimates with less reviewing time and, hence, cost. The audit approach was adopted in the groundfish hook-and-line fishery in British Columbia, Canada, in 2006, and experience has shown that it can meet operational requirements for accuracy and timeliness. It is also more robust to the impact of equipment malfunction and can provide an independent estimate of total catch. Moreover, because catch estimates are derived from self-reported data rather than "black-box" records, the estimation process is more transparent and intuitive and, hence, more trusted by harvesters. Although cost reduction is always a primary concern, the audit approach offers significant additional benefits that should be considered in the design and implementation of EM programmes. © 2011 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
Vaughn Barrie J.,Geological Survey of Canada |
Cook S.,Archipelago Marine Research Ltd. |
Conway K.W.,Geological Survey of Canada
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2011
Cold seeps on the Pacific margin of Canada occur in 130 m water depth in an actively trawled region of Hecate Strait. The seep sites are located within a NW/SE orientated linear pockmark chain. Within the largest of the pockmarks, actively venting authigenic carbonate chimneys (mounds) occur, and the chimneys are surrounded by a wide halo of shells and shell debris. The faunal assemblage found at the cold seeps is unique from that of the surrounding soft substrate habitat and is not typical of other cold seep communities. All taxa are relatively common species found on the British Columbia continental shelf, although some, such as the Oregon triton (Fusitriton oregonensis) were in unusually high abundance for a habitat dominated by soft substrate. These taxa were apparently attracted by the presence of hard substrate in an otherwise soft seabed environment, especially those sessile organisms, such as giant plumose anemones (Metridium giganteum) and encrusting sponges that require hard substrate for attachment. No direct evidence could be found that linked the presence of any epifauna to the presence of hydrocarbons; however the presence of the gutless clam Solemya reidi and high abundance of Oregon triton strongly implies a relationship to the cold seeps. The significant preservation of shell debris that surrounds the carbonate chimneys suggests that the chemistry of the near-seabed water has been altered, due to the presence of the hydrocarbon seepage. The exposure of the carbonate chimneys is a result of discontinuous expulsion of thermogenic gas and continued deepening of the pockmarks. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zollett E.A.,MRAG Americas |
Trumble R.J.,MRAG Americas |
Swasey J.H.,MRAG Americas |
Stebbins S.B.,Archipelago Marine Research Ltd.
Fisheries | Year: 2015
Monitoring of fishing activities is an essential component of successful fisheries management that can provide verifiable fishery-dependent data on fishing activities and help assess performance and success of fisheries management plans. Fishery managers and stakeholders have often struggled in developing and implementing effective monitoring programs due to lack of information, funding, and peer-to-peer learning from existing monitoring programs. This article draws on the experience of over 25 national and international monitoring experts and reflects the most important lessons learned from commercial fisheries regarding the development and implementation of effective monitoring programs. The article discusses a set of “guiding principles,” developed in consultation with the monitoring experts, which provide fishery managers and stakeholders with cumulative knowledge and references to more easily develop comprehensive, appropriate, and effective monitoring approaches. © 2015, American Fisheries Society.
Archipelago Marine Research Ltd. | Date: 2015-11-23
Electronic monitoring equipment in the field of fisheries, namely, computer hardware, computer software for recording, viewing and analyzing fisheries data. Fisheries management consulting. Consulting services in the field of marine environmental assessment; consulting services in the field of environmental assessment of fisheries; environmental monitoring consulting in the fields of marine focused environmental assessment, habitat surveys, construction and long term monitoring, and coastal development planning and shoreline design.