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Decatur, IL, United States

Shi H.T.,China Agricultural University | Li S.L.,China Agricultural University | Cao Z.J.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.J.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science

The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye ( Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40. kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60. kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60. kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60. kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03. kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03. kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03. kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02. kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02. kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02. kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02. kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11. mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) than cows fed other diets. No significant differences were noted in apparent neutral detergent fiber digestibility among the treatments. Compared with CON treatment, the RWR, RCS, and RCG treatments generated an additional $0.77, $0.70, and $0.81 income over feed cost per cow per day, respectively. In conclusion, feeding diets containing a portion of T-CS and DDGS can improve profitability of the treatment groups without negatively affecting the lactation performance of mid- to late-lactation cows. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Johnson J.M.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Shreck A.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Nuttelman B.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Burken D.B.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science

Two experiments were conducted with 192 steers each (during the winter [November to May] or summer [June to October]) to evaluate 3 diets with or without Yucca schidigera extract in a 3 × 2 factorial on steer growth performance and N mass balance. One factor was diet (DM basis): 1) 5% untreated corn stover, 51% corn, and 40% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; CON); 2) 20% calcium oxide– treated corn stover (CaO added at 5% of stover DM), 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (TRT); or 3) 20% untreated corn stover, 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (NONTRT). The other factor was dietary Y. schidigera extract at 0 (NOYE) or 1.0 g/d per steer (YE). No interaction between diet and YE was detected (P > 0.51) for growth performance and carcass traits in winter and only for DMI in summer. Final BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.28) between cattle fed CON and TRT, whereas cattle fed NONTRT had lesser ADG, HCW, and G:F compared to CON and TRT in the winter experiment. During the summer, final BW and ADG tended to be greater (P ≥ 0.07) for CON compared to TRT. Cattle fed TRT had reduced (P < 0.01) G:F compared to CON. No difference was observed (P ≥ 0.36) between YE and NOYE in the winter experiment for performance or carcass traits. In the summer, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.02) HCW, ADG, and DMI compared to NOYE. In the summer experiment, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.01) N intake, N excretion, and amount of N lost (kg/steer) compared to NOYE, but no difference (P = 0.33) was observed for percentage of N volatilized (% of excretion). Diet had no effect (P > 0.18) on amount (kg/steer) or percentage of N volatized in the winter or summer. All diets had similar amounts (P > 0.13) of DM and OM removed from the pen surface in both summer and winter. Feeding CaO-treated corn stover as a partial grain replacement had no impact on performance in winter but decreased G:F in summer. Although high-fiber diets increased the amount of OM on pen surfaces, they did not impact N volatilized. Feeding a Y. schidigera extract did not affect N balance or manure characteristics. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Hauptman B.S.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Hauptman B.S.,Montana State University | Barrows F.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Block S.S.,Archer Daniels Midland Research | And 3 more authors.
North American Journal of Aquaculture

Abstract: Coproducts from the production of fuel ethanol may have the potential to be used as protein sources for Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss if dietary supplementation strategies that can maintain fish performance can be identified. A random sample of one such coproduct, grain distiller's dried yeast (GDDY), contained detectable levels of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonsin B1, and fumonsin B3. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test whether growth performance of Rainbow Trout fed GDDY could be improved by dietary supplementation of a mycotoxin deactivator (Mycofix Plus). The study was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial design in which there were two levels of mycotoxin deactivator (0.1% or 0%) and three levels of GDDY inclusion (0, 15, and 30%). All diets were formulated to include 42% digestible protein and 20% crude lipid and were balanced for lysine, methionine, threonine, and total phosphorus. Juvenile Rainbow Trout (average initial body weight, 26.4 ± 0.9 g [mean ± SD]) were stocked at 15 fish per tank, three replicates per diet, and were fed twice daily for 12 weeks. Grain distiller's dried yeast inclusion at 15% and 30% of the diet reduced the growth of Rainbow Trout (P = 0.0010). In contrast, no significant differences in feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed for Rainbow Trout fed diets having the 0% and 15% GDDY inclusion levels. However, increased feed intake (P = 0.0002) and FCR (P = 0.0002) were observed in Rainbow Trout fed the 30% GDDY diet. Only minor trends of increased fish growth (P = 0.0773) and protein (P = 0.0527) and energy (P = 0.0538) retention were observed when mycotoxin deactivator was supplemented regardless of yeast inclusion. These results suggest that there are minor benefits of myctoxin deactivator supplementation to Rainbow Trout diets where mycotoxin contamination may be suspected but was independent of GDDY inclusion level.Received December 20, 2014; accepted February 12, 2014. © 2014, © American Fisheries Society 2014. Source

Smith P.B.,Archer Daniels Midland Research
ACS Symposium Series

The global chemical industry is undergoing a transformation driven by price volatility and geographical location of petrochemical feedstocks. In part, this pressure on petrofeedstocks has led to a resurgence of interest in renewable feedstocks. Even though renewable chemistry is receiving considerable interest today, it is by no means a new idea. In fact, it developed along with the early chemical industry and its proponents even coined a name for it, chemurgy. A number of leading global chemical and agricultural companies have shown renewed interest in chemurgy. This is primarily due to the cost competitiveness and abundance of renewable feedstocks as a result of significant improvements in agriculture over the past several decades. Major initiatives in the chemical industry have focused on both direct chemical replacements and bio-Advantaged molecules. Direct chemical replacements use agricultural feedstocks to produce an existing petrochemical product. Bio-Advantaged molecules are not readily accessible from petrochemical sources. Several examples of each will be discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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