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Gupta S.P.,Archaeological Survey of India
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2013

Thirteen species of fungi were obtained out of ten samples (five samples of each monument) collected from various places of stone structures of the monuments. Aspergillus fumigatus Fr.species are found in all samples and their percentage frequency is very high. Aspergillus fumigatus Fr., Aspergillus terreus Thom. And Aspergillus flavus fungal species are common on stone of the monument. There should be given priority to the characteristic features of stone structures, their different forms, designs and materials in finding the cause(s) of their degradation and deterioration) This study infers that in the degradation and deterioration of stone there is equal contribution by microbes and the design of stone structures. Hence the nature of the substrate, the relation between substrate and organism, the relation between the design and growth of organism, their frequency distribution are essential components in stone monument preservation interventions. Source

Gupta S.P.,Archaeological Survey of India
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2011

Consolidation treatments on cultural heritage assets have been performed for more than 20 years. However, very few studies on the employed products and methods have been done. The main purpose of the present study was to analyze the changes of physical properties in freshly quarried and in deteriorated stone, after a consolidation treatment with tetraethoxysilane. For this purpose we performed measurements of sorption (absorption of water and adsorption of solid particles on the stone surface), gas adsorption and ultrasonic velocity. The study implies that a consolidation treatment will improve the physical properties of deteriorated stone and have a satisfactory effect, if that treatment is performed in a correct way and the stone is allowed to absorb consolidation liquid until saturation. For badly deteriorated stone two consolidation treatments seem to be sufficient; a third application probably does not improve the physical properties of the stone. It was observed that treatments carried out 10 to 15 years ago still have the intended strengthening effect on the stone. In most cases, if stone remains exposed to water, the consolidating treatment ensures only a 5 to 10 years protecting effect; after that the treatment needs to be repeated. However, the long-term effects and efficacy of periodically repeated consolidation treatments of stone need to be studied further, before such a procedure can be recommended as standard procedure. We also present a suggestion for a preventive consolidation of freshly quarried stone used to replace damaged parts. Source

Gupta S.P.,Archaeological Survey of India
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2011

Chhattisgarh is a land of ancient culture, with many ancient monuments, temples and forts. Every nook and corner of Chhattisgarh has traditional heritage. There are numerous factors that affect the durability of stone. Stone surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Physical, chemical, and biological agents act in coassociation, ranging from synergistic to antagonistic and leading to deterioration. Among biological agents, micro-organisms are of critical importance in stone deterioration. They can cause various damages on the stone surface. Biodeterioration processes result from complex interactions of surface-invading microbes with each other, as well as with the surface material. The ability of fungi to produce pigments and organic acids is crucial for the discoloration and degradation of monuments. Air acts as a vehicle for the dispersion of microorganisms. They are introduced into air from different sources: soil, water, organic waste, plant leaves, sneezes and cough. This investigation focuses on the scientific conservation of The Sita Devi Temple of Deorbija DistricDurg, [Chhattisgarh]. The stone surface of the temple grew dark due to deposits of dust, dirt, dried vegetation and the growth of micro vegetation on the exterior as well as the interior portions. Source

Ganjoo R.K.,Jammu University | Ota S.B.,Archaeological Survey of India
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

Prehistoric sites are reported from the entire length and breadth of India. Most of these are surface sites, and invite less attention and significance compared to the few sites that are buried. The systematic excavation of prehistoric sites has contributed to the understanding of typo-technological evolution in the backdrop of time and space. However, the early artifact bearing sites in Himalaya beyond the Indo-Gangetic plains, although open-air sites, hold significance in terms of understanding the extent of human colonization in Himalaya in relation to climate. The sporadic evidence of early humans in the Siwalik ranges of Jammu and along the Indus River in the Leh valley undoubtedly confirm the advent of early humans to this geographical realm when most of the area had tectonically stabilized and the more-or less present day landscape and ecology had developed in the region, with ameliorated climate for early human settlement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Singh M.,Archaeological Survey of India | Arbad B.R.,Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with characterizing the components and materials of decorated earthen mortar in the rock cut caves of Ellora, using visual as well as instrumental techniques. Particle size analysis, XRD, microscopy, and thin section analysis techniques were applied to assess the mineral composition of the earthen support and local soil. The composition of the mud mortar was also characterized using scanning electron microscope, XRF, FTIR, and aggregate analysis of the components. Analytical examinations reveal use of surprisingly very little clay binder with coarse-grained silt loam to sandy loam local soil, probably sourced from alluvial deposits near the waterfall within cave complex, with identical mineralogical composition. The properties of high silt/sand and low clay raw soil have been modified by adding dolomitic lime to enhance its cementing characteristics. FTIR reveals the presence of proteinaceous materials in the mud mix as well as in the pigment layer. Aggregates such as glauconites and zeolites were identified in mortar mix along with vegetal matter. Entomological studies show the mud mortar to be contaminated with tiny insects like plaster beetles and bugs. The studies favor a holistic approach in the preparation of matching restoration mortar for optimizing quality and durability, and for greater compatibility with the original. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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