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Glenside, PA, United States

Arcadia University is a private university located in Glenside, Pennsylvania, United States, on the outskirts of Philadelphia. A master's university by Carnegie Classification, the university has a co-educational student population of approximately 4,000 . The university was ranked 25th in the master's universities in the North category by U.S. News & World Report for the 2009 rankings. The 76-acre campus features Grey Towers Castle, a National Historic Landmark. Wikipedia.

DiSantis K.I.,Arcadia University | Hodges E.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Fisher J.O.,Temple University
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2013

Background: Breastfeeding modestly reduces obesity risk, yet the mechanisms are not well understood. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the association of breastfeeding duration with a wide range of maternal feeding approaches in late infancy and toddlerhood.Methods: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from an ethnically-diverse sample of 154 mothers of infants (aged 7-11 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) was performed. Breastfeeding history was self-reported where 75% of mothers had weaned by the time of the interview. Multiple dimensions of maternal feeding approaches were measured using the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire which assesses pressuring, restriction, responsive, laissez-faire, and indulgent approaches to feeding. Analyses were performed separately for infants and toddlers and adjusted for maternal education level, ethnicity, and marital status.Results: Mothers of infants who breastfed for longer durations tended to report greater responsiveness to infant satiety cues (p≤0.01) and reduced pressuring in feeding complementary foods (p<0.05). Mothers of toddlers who breastfed for longer durations tended to report reduced pressuring in feeding complementary foods (p<0.01).Conclusion: These results suggest that breastfeeding may shape maternal feeding approaches related to responsiveness to infant cues as infants enter a period of complementary feeding, even after considering a range of demographic characteristics previously associated with breastfeeding behaviors. That responsiveness to feeding cues was not associated with breastfeeding duration in the toddler sample suggests that some aspects of this association might be isolated to infancy. © 2013 DiSantis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Schmidt K.A.,Texas Tech University | Belinsky K.L.,Arcadia University
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2013

Predation is an important cost of communication in animals and thus a potent selection pressure on the evolution of signaling behavior. Heterospecific eavesdropping by predators may increase the vulnerability of vocalizing prey, particularly during low light, such as at dusk when nocturnal predators are actively hunting. Despite the risk it entails, dawn and dusk chorusing is common in passerines. However, the dusk chorus has not been studied much, neglecting the opportunity for understanding how eavesdropping between predators and prey may shape communication in birds. Here, we report the first demonstration of simulated predation risk (playback of owl vocalizations) altering the dusk chorus of a diurnal passerine, the veery (Catharus fuscescens). Veeries have a pronounced dusk chorus, singing well after sunset and potentially exposing themselves to predation by owls. In response to brief playbacks of owl calls (~30 s of calls presented three times over 25 min), veeries sang fewer songs post-sunset and stopped singing earlier relative to control trials. These changes in singing remained evident 30 min after the last owl stimulus. Although the avian dusk chorus has received relatively little attention to date, our results suggest that the dusk chorus may pose a higher predation risk to singing males that may influence the evolution of singing behavior in diurnal birds. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

McClure P.,Arcadia University | Greenberg E.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Kareha S.,WellSpan Health
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review | Year: 2012

The scapula plays an important role in shoulder function and requires both significant mobility and stability. Normal motion is 3-dimensional, and during arm elevation consists of upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation as well as clavicular elevation and retraction. Examination should include visual observation, symptom alterations tests, testing of muscle strength, and flexibility of key structures including the pectoralis minor, posterior shoulder and thoracic spine. Treatment consists of graded resistive exercise, neuromuscular retraining, stretching, manual therapy, and taping where necessary. Although several studies suggest a relationship between abnormal scapular motion and symptoms, strong evidence directly supporting a causal relationship is lacking and further work is necessary to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Resetarits Jr. W.J.,Texas Tech University | Binckley C.A.,Arcadia University
American Naturalist | Year: 2013

Camouflage occupies a central role in arsenals of both predators and prey and invokes visions of organisms possessing specific characteristics or altering their shape, color, or behavior to blend into the visual background or confound identification. However, many organisms use modalities other than vision. Chemical communication is particularly important in aquatic systems, and chemicals cues are used by a broad array of colonizing organisms to recognize and avoid risky habitats. Here we describe a habitat selection experiment with aquatic beetles and summarize results of 11 experiments involving colonizing beetles and ovipositing tree frogs that provide evidence that pirate perch Aphredoderus sayanus are chemically camouflaged with respect to a diverse array of prey organisms. We believe this to be the first example of a predator possessing a generalized chemical camouflage effective against a broad array of prey organisms, and we suggest that it may constitute a novel weapon in the predator-prey arms race. © 2013 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. Source

Resetarits Jr. W.J.,Texas Tech University | Binckley C.A.,Arcadia University
Oecologia | Year: 2013

Colonization and extinction are primary drivers of local population dynamics, community structure, and spatial patterns of biological diversity. Existing paradigms of island biogeography, metapopulation biology, and metacommunity ecology, as well as habitat management and conservation biology based on those paradigms, emphasize patch size, number, and isolation as primary characteristics influencing colonization and extinction. Habitat selection theory suggests that patch quality could rival size, number, and isolation in determining rates of colonization and resulting community structure. We used naturally colonized experimental landscapes to address four issues: (a) how do colonizing aquatic beetles respond to variation in patch number, (b) how do they respond to variation in patch quality, (c) does patch context affect colonization dynamics, and (d) at what spatial scales do beetles respond to habitat variation? Increasing patch number had no effect on per patch colonization rates, while patch quality and context were critical in determining colonization rates and resulting patterns of abundance and species richness at multiple spatial scales. We graphically illustrate how variation in immigration rates driven by perceived predation risk (habitat quality) can further modify dynamics of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography beyond predator-driven effects on extinction rates. Our data support the importance of patch quality and context as primary determinants of colonization rate, occupancy, abundance, and resulting patterns of species richness, and reinforce the idea that management of metapopulations for species preservation, and metacommunities for local and regional diversity, should incorporate habitat quality into the predictive equation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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